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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Alfred Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe

Alfred Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe  

(1865–1922) Britishnewspaper proprietorBorn Alfred Harmsworth in Dublin, he founded the Daily Mail (1896), the Daily Mirror (1903), and bought The Times in 1908. His brother, Viscount Rothermere ...
cultural studies

cultural studies  

The critical analysis of the texts and practices of everyday life in contemporary society: an interdisciplinary enterprise involving both the humanities and the social sciences. Its territory (in the ...
Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore  

(1861–1941)Indian writer, who was awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1915 he was knighted but repudiated the honour in protest against the Amritsar Massacre (1919).Tagore was born into a ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
CIVILIZATION

CIVILIZATION   Reference library

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
196 words

...century (Mirabeau the elder, L’Ami des hommes , 1758 ) to designate dynamically what civility designated “statically” ( see CIVILITY ): civilization is a process through which humans become “civil” by overcoming primitive barbarity through gentler customs and the establishment of “civic” ties. I. “CIVILIZATION,” CIVILISATION , CIVILTÀ , ZIVILISATION Here we have chosen to give priority to the following: 1. Italian thought about civiltà , a single term to designate what French calls civilité and civilisation ( cf. SPREZZATURA and VIRTÙ...

SOPHISM

SOPHISM   Reference library

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
514 words

...of medieval works; see also SOLLEN . II. Sophism and Politics Hegel says of the Sophists that they were “the masters of Greece,” in the sense of pedagogues and teachers, but also in the sense of being politically powerful, dominating through the power of language and the establishment of the political per se; see, in addition to LOGOS , II.A and RES , Box 1 , SPEECH ACT , I , TRUTH , Box 2 , and CONSENSUS , PRAXIS , VIRTÙ . ➤ DIALECTIC , DISCOURSE , DOXA , SENSE , SIGN , SIGNIFIER/SIGNIFIED , WISDOM ...

COMMON SENSE

COMMON SENSE (ENGLISH)   Reference library

Fabienne Brugère

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
1,819 words

...going astray, functions like a common sense: “The general opinion of mankind has some authority in all cases; but in this of morals ‘tis perfectly infallible” ( Treatise of Human Nature , 552). Though the general opinion of mankind defines a common sense necessary for the establishment of a moral philosophy, the resort to common sense is sometimes more ambiguous; thus Hume mentions the truth of the proverb about the pointlessness of arguments about taste: “And thus common sense, which is so often at variance with philosophy, especially with the sceptical...

CORSO

CORSO (ITALIAN)   Reference library

Alain Pons

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
1,896 words

...condemn nations to an ineluctable death, other nations taking their place in order to follow the same process. In the case of Rome, the final dissolution was the result of the failure, due to humans themselves, of the first remedy that providence provided them, namely the establishment of a rational monarchy. Was this failure inevitable? Are “human” times, those of “completely developed” reason, always condemned to corruption and death? The question remains open, and Vico himself gave no categorical response to it. When at the end of the Scienza nuova he...

AGENCY

AGENCY   Reference library

Étienne Balibar and Sandra Laugier

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
7,145 words

...“agency” has acquired, in American English, a concrete political sense, becoming the function of the agent, and then an establishment or institution that has the power to act on behalf of someone (“an establishment for the purpose of doing business for another,” RT: Oxford English Dictionary ). An unexpected sense appears in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in the context of the conquest of the American West and the establishment of local authorities, designating their jurisdiction over the Indians: “agency” designates the political power, the office...

HÁ

(PORTUGUESE)   Reference library

Fernando Santoro

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
2,220 words

...appeals to the sense of the verb haver to explain the specific usage of the German verb geben in the expression es gibt , even though she chooses to translate it by the Portuguese form equivalent to the German, dá-se : To distinguish the ontological level of the establishment of structures from the ontic level of derivations, Being and Time reserves the verb to give [ dar-se ] ( geben ), and thus inserts [ incutindo ] the active and transitive meaning in the process referred to by the verb haver . As a consequence, to give [ dar-se ] always...

BAROQUE

BAROQUE   Reference library

Claude Mignot

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
2,593 words

...opposed to the baroque in the original, figurative sense of the term. The overcoming of this cultural blockage, of which Michel Butor ’s novel La modification ( 1957 ) offers a premonitory novelistic expression, closely followed the signature of the Treaty of Rome and the establishment of the Common Market. Victor Tapié’s book Baroque et classicisme ( 1957 ) no doubt played a major role in the substitution of the word “baroque” for the word “classic” in France. Our generation saw Versailles, which had earlier been considered the masterpiece of French...

SAUDADE

SAUDADE (PORTUGUESE)   Reference library

Fernando Santoro

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
2,119 words

...portuguesa ) However, the religious idea of salvation was not involved in saudade before the existentialist and mystical poets and philosophers of the Portuguese renaissance, the nationalist and messianic cultural movement of the early twentieth century that accompanied the establishment of the republic in Portugal. Leonardo Coimbra and Teixeira de Pascoaes, the founder of the review A Águia , made this feeling an existential foundation, indeed a goddess, with a special religion and form of worship. Saudade is thus associated with the most important events...

VERNEINUNG

VERNEINUNG (GERMAN)   Reference library

Monique David-Ménard

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
4,062 words

...previous exclusion of a content. It is an attempt that establishes conscious thought without being able to reconcile the subject with his own experience. Negation does not suffice to account for repression, but it characterizes that form of repression that is linked to the establishment, in thought, of logic. Freud locates negation in the sequences of discourse and judgment, but he relates it to an experimental plan, somewhat like what Kant did when he left behind the formalism of onto-logic and reflected on the negative grandeurs, or more generally on the...

ENTREPRENEUR

ENTREPRENEUR (FRENCH)   Reference library

Hélène Vérin

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
3,459 words

...practical realization, the setting in motion of the transaction; and by “adventurer,” “enterpriser,” and “projector,” to emphasize the risks related to speculation. At the end of the eighteenth century, the French word entreprise acquired the new meaning of an “industrial establishment.” Entrepreneur accordingly acquired the sense of the head or direction of a business of production (superintendent, employer, manager). In France, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the noun entrepreneur had strong political connotations, in particular in the...

FRENCH

FRENCH   Reference library

Alain Badiou

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
5,144 words

... Language Stripped Bare by Its Philosophers ➤ CIVIL SOCIETY , COMBINATION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION , COMMON SENSE , ENGLISH , ERZÄHLEN , EUROPE , GERMAN , GREEK , ITALIAN , LOGOS , PEOPLE , POLITICS , PORTUGUESE , REASON , RUSSIAN , SEX , TO BE , WORD ORDER The establishment of thought in the French language took on a political meaning from the start: the privilege given to French does not derive from any intrinsic character of the language, but instead from the possibility of a universal and democratic philosophical communication. A language of...

HERRSCHAFT

HERRSCHAFT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Marc de Launay

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
4,330 words

...the distinction between potestas (royal power) and auctoritas (papal authority) was constantly being refined, leading to a clear opposition (cf. W. Ensslin , “Auctorita und Potestas”; Habermas, Structural Transformation , chap. I, §2)—whose extreme consequences were the establishment of an independent legal system in France (Cujas’s reform under Philippe Auguste ) and the Anglican schism—the term Herrschaft remained, in the Germanic era, relatively indeterminate and referred to the power of the father over a family and servants, in the same way as the...

PARONYM

PARONYM   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
6,014 words

...be kept in mind when stressing the central role played by “paronymy” in the late antique interpretation of Aristotle’s Metaphysics . “Paronymy” is involved in the genesis of the theory called “the analogy of being” ( analogia entis ). The phenomenon can be described as the establishment of the homonyms aph’ henos ( ἀφ’ ἑνός ‎] (coming from something unitary, “unity of provenance” [Lat. ab uno ]) and the homonyms pros hen [ πϱὸς ἕν ‎] (in view of something of one, “focal unit” [ ad unum ]), or more simply pros hen legomena [ πϱὸς ἕν λεγόμενα ‎], placed...

SEIN

SEIN (GERMAN)   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
5,737 words

...would reduce the paradox with which his name is associated: What might be appropriately called the principle of beyond-being of the pure object ( Außersein des reinen Gegenstandes ) definitively dissipates the apparent paradox that furnished the initial motive for the establishment of that principle “the principle of the independence of Sosein in relation to Sein .” (Ibid.) It thus follows from the principle of indifference that being or nonbeing do not belong to the nature of the object: the latter is beyond being and nonbeing; it is außerseiend ,...

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