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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Lagos Plan of Action

Lagos Plan of Action   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

.... Since global development strategies seemed to have failed, the LPA was therefore meant to be a homegrown panacea for continental Africa, with a focus on collective self-reliance and self-sustenance in regional and subregional development. A basic ideal of the LPA was the establishment of grounds for development and economic growth that were both self-sustaining and durable. It was the hope of the LPA that by the year 2000 , Africa would have established an African Economic Community. Further, the Lagos plan recognized the food problems of Africa and...

Mboya, Tom

Mboya, Tom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,006 words

...the vast differences in the living conditions between Europeans and Africans and the racial divide evident, for example, in that some Europeans would not allow African employees of the council to inspect their premises. The opportunity for active engagement with the colonial establishment then emerged with Mboya’s joining the Nairobi African Local Government Servants’ Association (NALGSA), in which he rose to the position of vice president. Mboya increasingly was concerned about political developments in Kenya, and when in 1952 a state of emergency was...

Herskovits, Melville Jean

Herskovits, Melville Jean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,350 words

...including black and white liberal scholars who argued that black American culture was a pathological version of white culture with little or no African influence. At a time when most white Americans assumed black Americans to be inferior as a race and a culture, Herskovits’s establishment of the strength and complexity of African and African-influenced cultures was an important intellectual achievement. Herskovits’s research on black cultures showed the diverse influences on American culture, helped to transform notions of American identity from exclusive and...

Danquah, Joseph Boakye

Danquah, Joseph Boakye   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...It also led subsequently to his eclipse as the focal point in the successful defeat of British colonial government in 1957 . [ See also Akan ; and Philosophy , subentry on African (South of the Sahara) Philosophy ]. Bibliography Danquah, J. B . The Ghanaian Establishment . Accra, Ghana: Ghana University Press, 1997. Danquah, J. B . Akan Doctrine of God . 2d ed. London: Frank Cass, 1968. Okoampa-Ahoofe, Kwame, Jr . Dr. J. B. Danquah: Architect of Modern Ghana . Lincoln, Neb.: iUniverse, Inc, 2005. Akwasi...

Neocolonialism

Neocolonialism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...exercised demographic and political control by means of superior military power and wealth. Colonies were seen as reservoirs of raw materials and cheap human labor, and as markets for dumping excess European manufactures. There were only minimal attempts at encouraging the establishment and growth of indigenous industries. Postcolonial relations between former colonies and the First World remain the same, with the same kinds of control still in place. Advanced technical accumulation leads to economic exploitation, especially through trade, with First World...

Douglass, Frederick

Douglass, Frederick   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...black republic. Douglass believed that the United States would do well to invest in Haiti, since it was committed to the establishment and maintenance of democracy and free trade, and that the relationship would serve the two republics well. Unfortunately, that belief would not manifest into a concrete reality, as Douglass was unsuccessful in persuading American economic and political powerbrokers to work toward the establishment of meaningful diplomatic relations and trade with Haiti. This lack of American recognition and support of black statehood...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
Illustration(s):
1

...collective security and early-warning arrangement to facilitate timely and efficient responses to conflicts and crisis situations in Africa” (Protocol, 2002 ). In addition, the AU’s new development strategy, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), includes the establishment of a new African peer review mechanism. It is designed to promote good governance within African countries, seen as one of the best ways to prevent domestic political conflicts from leading to coups, insurgency, or civil war. In conclusion, the idea(l) of pan-Africanism has...

Scientific Institutions in Africa

Scientific Institutions in Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,275 words

..., an observatory at Algiers. More serious institutional development occurred at the southern end of the continent. During the late 1700 s, naturalists from the University of Uppsala and other European institutions began building collections near the Cape of Good Hope. The establishment of British control in 1806 led to the creation of a number of fairly important institutions, including the Cape of Good Hope Horticultural Society and the Cape Town Museum, whose director, Andrew Smith, became one of the first Africa-based scientists to gain international...

Decolonization

Decolonization   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,142 words

...and earning higher wages and better working conditions. When nationalist parties took control of the new nation-states, many citizens were hopeful that the new governments would allow them to achieve these aspirations. Yet, as many African intellectuals have argued, the establishment of sovereign nation-states did not simply undo all that the European colonizers had done in Africa. Frantz Fanon, a psychiatrist, intellectual, and supporter of Algeria’s struggle for independence from France in the 1950 s and 1960 s, regards colonial inequality as a result...

Dhlomo, H. I. E.

Dhlomo, H. I. E.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,097 words

...Dhlomo responded to the ideas of James Kwegyir Aggrey, a U.S.-educated West African intellectual who visited South Africa in the 1920 s. Among Dhlomo’s early pieces is an entry on Solomon Plaatje in T. D. Mweli Skota’s African Yearly Register , an important work in the establishment of an African identity. Dhlomo’s early career is characterized by “progressivism,” although even at the start of his career he is too critical of “European progress” to be summarily dismissed as progressive. Later, Dhlomo’s work carries a stronger Africanist bent, and he is...

Herodotus

Herodotus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,031 words

...are on Egypt, which he saw as the progenitor of Greek civilization. Book I only mentions Egypt obliquely, focusingpon the history of the wars between Greece and Persia. Book II describes Egypt before the Persian Conquest of Cambyses in 525 b.c.e. , which saw the establishment of a new Persian dynasty (the twenty-seventh dynasty), which lasted until 404 b.c.e . Although some observations are clearly firsthand, Herodotus relies greatly on interviews with the Priests of Ptah at Memphis for reconstructing detailed historical accounts of Egypt and its...

Kagwa, Apolo

Kagwa, Apolo   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,015 words

...supported by Egyptian and Sudanese interests. Kagwa was converted to Christianity at a young age and remained a staunch Anglican throughout his life. He rose through the political ranks, becoming treasurer of the kingdom in 1887 while also playing a key role in the establishment of the Anglican Church in Uganda. When a civil war broke out in Buganda pitting Anglicans against Catholics in 1888 , Kagwa was the leader of the successful Anglican faction, a position that earned him influence among the British colonizers and the Buganda elite alike. When...

Mbiti, John

Mbiti, John   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,103 words

...John John Mbiti’s work has been central to the debates within African religious thought and modern African philosophy. His corpus also has attracted the attention of many critics—a large number of whom have not been complimentary, which in turn has led to the establishment of an engaging tradition of founding discourses related to the modern African condition. John Mbiti’s prolific career as an academic produced several major texts: African Religions and Philosophy ( 1969 ), African Concepts of God ( 1970 ), and New Testament Eschatology in an...

Nasser, Gamal Abdel

Nasser, Gamal Abdel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,056 words

...and to Egypt’s Western Desert. In 1948–1949 Nasser led Egyptian army troops against the new State of Israel. In common with fellow officers, Nasser felt humiliated by the ensuing defeat of the Egyptian and other Arab armies. He blamed Egypt’s defeat on Egypt’s political establishment, which, in his view, had done little to prepare the army for battle. This grievance dovetailed with Nasser’s growing anger at the Egyptian Government’s apparent unwillingness to improve the condition of Egypt’s poor, and rid Egypt of the remaining traces of British rule. In ...

Resistance

Resistance   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,121 words

...were nevertheless important in shaping the third phase of resistance to colonial rule in Africa, as begun with the founding of the Aborigines’ Rights Protection Society in (present-day) Ghana in 1897 and the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa in 1912 . The establishment of these organizations marked the beginning of African nationalism, which soon spread throughout the continent (especially during the interwar years). At the heart of the nationalist argument lay the claim that colonialism was inherently unfair and unjust, and that African...

Scientists, African

Scientists, African   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...published in 1967 in the journal Science , arguing that African societies should make scientific attitudes part of their own worldview. The essay attracted considerable attention in Africa, Europe, and America and eventually led to Odhiambo’s central role in the establishment of the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in Nairobi in 1969 . The ICIPE remains one of the most successful scientific institutions on the continent, drawing support from a large group of external donors. Odhiambo went on to help in the creation of...

Haitian Revolution

Haitian Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,630 words

...and forbade racial discrimination. However, his rule did not last, and he was captured in 1802 by Napoleon’s forces and sent to France. His capture opened the second phase of the Haitian Revolution, the struggle to consolidate freedom for the black population and the establishment of a new nation freed from French colonialism. Led by Dessalines, the revolutionary army of ex-slaves defeated the French, who had now restored the system of slavery to their overseas colonies. In 1803 , Dessalines declared the island independent and renamed it Haiti, its...

Religion and the African Diaspora

Religion and the African Diaspora   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,963 words

...the Code Noir mandated baptism and religious education for blacks beginning in 1625 . In contrast, the Anglican Church made little effort to convert Africans. Nonconformist Protestant groups filled this religious vacuum in many British territories. In cultural terms, the establishment churches came to offer a kind of admission to respectability and civilized society, whereas the nonconformist churches offered commented on the social order. The influence of both kinds of Christianity persists in the Caribbean today. Pentecostal and black independent churches...

Rodney, Walter

Rodney, Walter   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,576 words

...or Portuguese descent. In the academic world, the most remarkable fact about Walter Rodney is that, as huge an impact as Upper Guinea Coast made, his polemical monograph, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa ( 1973 ), has gone on to be reviled by much of the formal Africanist establishment, while also becoming a seminal influence among late twentieth-century pan-Africanist and leftist intellectuals. Rodney wrote Europe while he was a professor at the University of Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania. As an activist intellectual, it was always important for him to...

Crowther, Samuel Ajayi

Crowther, Samuel Ajayi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,308 words

...return to Sierra Leone from England, the CMS decided, in the interest of Sierra Leone’s future Christian leadership and propagation of the Christian faith, to provide education at a higher level than the colony’s modest schools offered at that time. The result was the establishment of a “Christian Institution” (Fourah Bay College) under Charles Harsel, which incidentally offered the first university education in tropical Africa. Crowther was the first student to enroll at the newly established Fourah Bay College. So rapid was his progress in academics...

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