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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Connell, Raewyn

Connell, Raewyn (1944–)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
89 words

...Connell, Raewyn ( 1944– ) Australian sociologist , instrumental in the establishment of masculinity studies and of southern theory. Also known as R.W. Connell, she is a trans woman who transitioned late in life. She coined the phrase ‘hegemonic masculinity’ to account for the dominance of men and the force of masculinity as a determining logic of everyday life. She also coined the expression ‘patriarchal dividend’ to denote the privilege that automatically accrues to all men by virtue of being men. Her best-known work in the field is Masculinities (...

paternity suit

paternity suit   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
126 words

...marriages carries the taint of illegitimacy. For a long period in history and in many countries, paternity suits could therefore also act to give a certain legitimacy to a child. Paternity suits have become much easier with the advent of DNA testing which makes possible the establishment of genetic connections between...

bride price

bride price   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
108 words

...of African countries. It is distinct from the dowry , another form of payment in relation to women on marriage, and the trousseau, a practice in many western countries of an endowment given to women on marriage, either as payment to the husband’s family, or as part of the establishment of the bride and groom’s new household, or as a fall-back for the woman if she needs some independent...

civil partnership

civil partnership   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
118 words

...and putting homosexuals on the same public footing as heterosexuals, others argue against this. They regard such partnerships as reproductive of heterosexual relationship confirmations and, further, question whether or not the state should play a role at all in the establishment of recognized relationships. There have also been campaigns to enable heterosexual couples to have civil partnerships rather than get...

Anthony, Susan B.

Anthony, Susan B. (1820–1906)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
123 words

...entitled The Revolution , and, during the 1880s, co-wrote a six-volume History of Woman Suffrage . In 1872 Anthony was arrested and brought to trial for voting in her hometown of Rochester. Anthony also promoted women’s rights internationally and was involved in the establishment of the International Council of...

women’s writing

women’s writing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
145 words

...as Hélène Cixous and Julia Kristeva developed the theory of écriture féminine to describe the particularities that characterized a feminine style of writing. As theories of gender fluidity gained greater hold in the 1990s, écriture féminine became less prominent. The establishment of women’s writing as a field of literary studies enabled the exploration and flourishing of lesbian writing, Black women’s writing, diasporic writing by women, women’s (auto)biographies, and women’s theatre and poetry, all of which gained greater critical...

madness

madness   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
238 words

...madness A state of mental disorder or illness which can take many forms, such as chaotic or repetitive behaviour and being out of control. In the 1970s and 1980s, as part of the establishment of genealogies of women’s cultural production, a series of texts featuring supposedly mad women, ranging from Jane Eyre to the popular nineteenth-century novels of Wilkie Collins to Charlotte Perkin Gilman’s novella The Yellow Wallpaper , were rediscovered by feminist literature scholars who argued that going mad was a rational response to the oppressiveness of...

second-wave feminism

second-wave feminism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
195 words

...for housework , and the acknowledgment and prosecution of sexual harassment , rape in marriage and domestic violence , feminist activity in the period was highly successful in making women’s voices heard through protests, strikes, street marches, and demonstrations, the establishment of feminist journals, publishing houses, and pamphlets, and through political activism such as consciousness-raising . Under initial banners such as ‘sisterhood is global’ women sought to unite against men since they held most positions of decision-making and power. The...

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism   Reference library

Gwynn Kessler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,535 words

...Stryker, 2006 , p. 7; Valentine, 2007 , p. 24). The reasons behind the relative success, establishment, institutionalization, and entrenchment of queer theory and queer studies relative to the “newness” of transgender theory and transgender studies in academic settings need to be interrogated. Transgender Studies. The publication of The Transgender Studies Reader , edited by Susan Stryker and Stephen Whittle, in 2006 marks an important step toward the establishment and institutionalization of transgender studies in academic settings. The compilation’s...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

Deborah F. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,164 words

...embryonic theory of gender production implicit in Beauvoir’s words. Wittig’s critique of a masculinized culture is profound, positing that heterosexuality orders all human relations and controls how we conceptualize the world. The ultimate means of political resistance is the establishment of a lesbian culture. A lesbian is not a woman, Wittig argues, whether economically, or politically, or ideologically. A woman exists only in a specific social relation to a man, and that relationship, according to Wittig, is one of servitude. Only a lesbian can be a female...

Mujerista Criticism

Mujerista Criticism   Reference library

Leticia Guardiola-Saenz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,558 words

...Particular biblical and theological presuppositions undergird mujerista criticism. First, the God of the Gospels is understood to have a preferential option for the poor and the marginalized. Second, the main message that Jesus preaches in the Gospels is understood as the establishment of the Kin-dom of God, where the hungry are fed, the homeless receive shelter, and the naked are clothed. This focus on kin-dom rather than king-dom is central to mujerista understanding. While during the first-century Jewish world the metaphor of kingdom was probably the...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Claudia Setzer, Susanne Scholz, and Surekha Nelavala

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
14,515 words

...feminism in the United States is typically defined as the period from the Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848 to the establishment of women’s voting rights in 1920 . Women’s rights, however, arose within a broad international network of relationships that accelerated in the nineteenth century, aided by increased travel, wider distribution of books and magazines, the establishment of telegraph links, reform movements like abolitionism that spanned the Atlantic, and Catholic and Protestant missionary and revival movements. ...

Historical-Critical Approaches

Historical-Critical Approaches   Reference library

Davina C. Lopez and Todd Penner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,251 words

...a radical and liberating perspective for the women of Stanton’s time, using then-contemporary developments in historical understandings of biblical literature to do so. The Woman’s Bible was controversial upon its publication, endured challenges from the mainstream religious establishment as well as from feminist colleagues, and was certainly not the only attempt to apply feminist consciousness to the “new” historical criticism of the Bible ( Calvert-Koyzis and Weir, 2010 ). However, its legacy for feminist and gender-critical appropriations of...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...leadership. On the one hand, there was the priestly leadership that oversaw the Jewish sacrificial rituals, first all over the country and later in the Jerusalem Temple. This leadership claimed its descent from Aaron the brother of Moses and represented the religious establishment in Israel and then in Judah. The priests, according to the Bible, received their authority from their descent: one could not become but was born a priest. In the Bible, the priesthood is a male office, and the Temple was rarely visited by women. Whether this picture is...

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...their marriages served to cement strategic alliances. However, whereas the Neo-Assyrians married foreign kings, the Neo-Babylonian kings used their daughters to solidify internal alliances, perhaps because of the relative turbulence of the Neo-Babylonian period. The establishment of Nabonidus’s daughter as the ēntu of Ur can be seen as part of the same trend. Neo-Assyrian Queens and Mothers of Kings. The Neo-Assyrian Empire was led by the king, the vice regent of the national god Aššur. Ideologically at least, all political power flowed from the king...

Popular Religion and Magic

Popular Religion and Magic   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Ann Jeffers, Pauline Hanesworth, Nicola Denzey Lewis, Jared C. Calaway, Mika Ahuvia, and Justin Marc Lasser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,199 words

...human beings ( āšipūtu ). The official cult was meant to benefit the community as a whole and involved both passive and active public participation on festival days but did not extend to life-cycle rites, which were not matters of public performance. The official priestly establishment kept the divinity localized in his shrine or temple and generally in a good mood, allowing the great gods of the pantheon to serve as enforcers for legitimate private magical rites. Private rites served a wide variety of human needs, including healing from illness; avoiding...

Religious Participation

Religious Participation   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Jo-Ann Scurlock, Susan Ackerman, Lynn Lidonnici, Darja Šterbenc Erker, Alicia D. Myers, Ross S. Kraemer, and Lily Vuong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,647 words

...was constantly evolving, with new gods or goddesses being discovered or transformed while old cults were never put aside, resulting in a very rich religious environment. The word “cult” has negative modern connotations, but it remains the best term to describe discrete ritual establishments. A cult is a particular liturgy devoted to the divinity that inheres in a particular object or place, and it may be practiced by one member or by thousands. For the most part, any participant in a particular cult may also participate in any number of others. The gods, heroes,...

Education

Education   Reference library

Heather D. D. Parker, Erin E. Fleming, Timothy J. Sandoval, Daniele Pevarello, Michele Kennerly, Pheme Perkins, Sarit Kattan Gribetz, and Lillian I. Larsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
28,684 words

...amid the busy duties of running a Roman household, Jerome likewise advocates a geographical shift. Removing the locus of instruction from its urban household setting, he urges Laeta to send young Paula to Bethlehem, to be educated in her grandmother’s monastery. Here, in an establishment organized and administered by two aristocratic women (the elder Paula and her sister, Eustochium), Jerome offers his services as tutor. As Paula’s ideal instructor, a man of “approved years, life, and learning,” he likens his proposed role to that of Aristotle teaching...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...continue to support the first one and keep her in his household for as long as she lives. LL 28 provides a similar safeguard for first wife who has become blind or paralyzed. Marriages could be terminated by the death of one of the spouses, desertion, and divorce. Just as the establishment of marriage was a legal proceeding, divorce required the legal dissolution of contractual agreements. The husband possessed the right to initiate divorce on any grounds. Declaring a formulaic statement, “you are/she is not my wife,” effectively dissolved the marriage. Some...

Race, Class, and Ethnicity

Race, Class, and Ethnicity   Reference library

Herbert Robinson Marbury, Denise Eileen McCoskey, Vassiliki Panoussi, Lynne St. Clair Darden, James K. Aitken, and Gay L. Byron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,382 words

...a woman of priestly family ( m. Bik. 1:5), since a female slave would be suspected of sexual promiscuity ( t. Hor . 2:11). The treatment of slaves typifies how sex can be used as a means of class distinctions, drawing upon Greco-Roman practice where the Bible is silent. The establishment of Augustan mores in the first century probably had some effect, but in similar fashion to Christian households we must assume a dual morality in which the exploitation of sex slaves contravened the ethics of the household (cf. Glancy, 2011 , pp. 133–152). While...

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