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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Hampden

Hampden (Canada, New Zealand, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Hampden , Canada, New Zealand, USA USA (Massachusetts and Maine): named after John Hampden ( see hamden ) who supported the establishment of Puritan communities in North...

Lambert’s Bay

Lambert’s Bay (Western Cape/South Africa)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Lambert’s Bay , Western Cape/South Africa Founded in 1913 and named after Rear Admiral Sir Robert Lambert , commander of the British naval establishment at the Cape ( 1820–1...

Hofmeyr

Hofmeyr (Eastern Cape/South Africa)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Hofmeyr , Eastern Cape/South Africa ( Maraisburg ) Settled in 1873 and first named after Daniel Marais who was prominent in its establishment. To distinguish it from another town of the same name in the Transvaal, it was renamed in 1911 after Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr ( 1845–1909 ), influential and much respected leader of the (Dutch) Afrikaner Bond in the Cape...

Fujian

Fujian (China)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Fujian , China A province which, when it was established in 760–2 , had five prefectures. The names of two of them, Fuzhou and Jianzhou, were combined to give the present name. Linguistically, the name can mean ‘Happy Establishment’ from fú ‘happiness’ and jiàn ‘to build’ or ‘to...

Emmitsburg

Emmitsburg (Maryland/USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Emmitsburg , Maryland/USA Although it is thought to have been settled in 1757 , the official year of its establishment is 1785 . Samuel Emmit, a local landowner, was responsible, and in his honour the town was given the name ‘Emmit’s Town’. It has been claimed that former names were Poplar Fields and Silver Fancy, but these have been...

Tartessian, Turdetan, and Iberian mythology

Tartessian, Turdetan, and Iberian mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...the Romans , Celts , and others made their way to Spain they encountered Tartessians, non– Indo-Europeans who, influenced by Phoenician traders, had, like the Romans, adopted the goddess Astarte and who celebrated Habis, a culture hero who was responsible for the establishment of Tartessian customs. Another non–Indo-European culture in Spain was that of the Turdetans, who also worshipped Astarte. Iberians in Spain developed a cult around the somewhat similar goddess Tanit, a figure with Greek-inspired Artemis-like ...

Warwick

Warwick (Australia, Canada, UK, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Island): founded as Shawomet in 1642 and subsequently renamed after Robert Rich ( 1587–1658 ), 2nd Earl of Warwick, Lord High Admiral, supporter of Cromwell against King Charles I , and a Puritan who headed a colonial government commission in 1643 which led to the establishment of Rhode...

Altanbulag

Altanbulag (Mongolia)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Altanbulag , Mongolia ( Mǎimàichéng ) This town in Selenge Province began with the Chinese name of Mǎimàichéng ‘Trading City’ because it was a major trading centre with Kyakhta to the north in Russia. After the establishment of the Mongolian People’s Republic in 1924 the present name, ‘Golden Spring’ from the Turkic-Mongolian altan ‘golden’ and bulag ‘spring’, was adopted. Töv Province also has a town with this...

Cape Province

Cape Province (South Africa)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Cape Province , South Africa ( Cape Colony ) With the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910 , Cape Colony, founded by the Dutch in 1652 and ceded to Britain in 1814 , was renamed the Province of the Cape of Good Hope, shortened to Cape Province. In 1994 the province was split into three smaller provinces: Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, and Western Cape. North West Province also received some territory from...

Beer Halls

Beer Halls   Reference library

Paul Ruschmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Americans, especially the young, quickly took a liking to lager. Beer hall proprietors, many of whom were German, catered to the newfound taste for lager. In some cities they built establishments with high ceilings and filled them with trees and plants in an effort to capture the atmosphere of an outdoor park—even in winter. Although they were roofed and enclosed, these establishments were commonly referred to as “beer gardens.” After the Civil War, there were an estimated three to four thousand beer halls in New York City alone. The largest, such as the...

Club Sandwich

Club Sandwich   Reference library

Becky Mercuri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Springs, New York. The casino's dining room was known for its fine cuisine and for its gambler's buffet, which provided delicious food for those who wanted minimum interruption of their gaming pursuits. By 1896 the club sandwich appeared on the menus of such New York City establishments as the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel and the Windsor Hotel. The club sandwich remains a ubiquitous item on restaurant luncheon menus. [ See also Sandwiches .] Bibliography Mercuri, Becky . Sandwiches That You Will Like . Pittsburgh, Pa.: WQED Multimedia, 2002. Rorer, Sarah Tyson . ...

Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain

Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...meeting held at Primrose Hill, London, to remind the English of their Celtic antecedents. Although the word gorsedd is found in early Welsh texts, e.g. the gorsedd of Arberth , the present celebration of the Gorsedd unquestionably begins with Iolo; he later encouraged the establishment of a gorsedd in each province of Wales. By the mid-19th century, the Gorsedd had become a part of the national Eisteddfod . Membership in the Gorsedd was about 1,300 at the end of the 20th century. A Breton Gorsedd, Gorzez Breizh, was founded in 1901 ; the Cornish, Gorseth...

Conall Gulban

Conall Gulban   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...his two brothers, Eógan and Énna (3) , were, according to T. F. O'Rahilly, identical with the three Collas who razed the Ulster capital of Emain Macha ; see Early Irish History and Mythology (Dublin, 1946 ), 230. On his own Conall headed the Clann Conaill. The establishment of two kingdoms in north-west Ulster, Tír Chonaill by Conall and Tír Eógain [Tyrone] by his brother Eógan , were signal events in early Irish history. According to oral tradition, Conall Gulban gave his name to Ben Bulben [corrupted from Beinn Ghulbain ], Co. Sligo,...

Suí Dynasty

Suí Dynasty (581–618 ce)   Reference library

Kerry Brown

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Suí Dynasty 隋朝 581–618 ce The Sui dynasty’s establishment by Emperor Wen (Suí Wéndì 隋文帝 ‎; born Yáng Jiān 杨坚 ‎) made an end to the long period of chaos of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The short-lived dynasty was characterized by military campaigns and harsh rule, but also by great achievements in engineering, the construction of cities, such as the capital Dàxīng 大兴 ‎ (modern Xi’an, in present-day Shaanxi Province), and the construction of the colossal Grand Canal system ( dà yùnhé 大运河 ‎) connecting major rivers and cities in eastern China....

Vanuatu

Vanuatu   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...mother and wife; he named the largest island Espíritu Santo. They were rediscovered by the French in 1768 and charted by Captain James Cook in 1774 ; he named them after the Scottish New Hebrides because of their fancied resemblance. Anglo-French rivalry resulted in the establishment of an Anglo-French Condominium in 1906 . Independence was gained in 1980 at which time the name was changed to Vanuatu ‘Our Land Forever’ from the Polynesian/Fijian vanua ...

Sydney

Sydney (Australia, Canada)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...governor of New South Wales ( 1788–92 ), arrived and he renamed it Sydney Cove after Thomas Townshend ( 1733–1800 ), 1st Viscount Sydney, the British home secretary ( 1783–9 ), whose department was also associated with the colonies at the time. Viscount Sydney promoted the establishment of a settlement in New South Wales for reformed convicts. The ‘Cove’ was later dropped. 2. Canada (Nova Scotia): founded in 1783 as a refuge for United Empire Loyalists and named after the 1st Viscount Sydney....

Cuba

Cuba (Portugal, USA)   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Place’, possibly a reference to its roughly central location in the Caribbean. From 1511 to 1898 Cuba was a Spanish colony. The island was occupied by American military forces between 1898 and 1902 and in 1906–9 ; in 1903 the Treaty of Relations authorized the establishment of an American naval base at Guantánamo Bay which still exists to this...

Cummings, Richard Osborn

Cummings, Richard Osborn (1908–1973)   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...It was republished by Arno Press in 1970 . The book had a major influence on the National Nutrition Conference for Defense at the beginning of World War II. This group put forward the idea of “recommending the establishment of the allowances for good nutrition as a national goal.” In short, this book contributed to the establishment of the Recommended Dietary Allowance, which evolved into today's Dietary Reference Intakes. In the early 1940s Richard Cummings worked with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He...

Harvey, Fred

Harvey, Fred (1835–1901)   Reference library

James D. Porterfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...trains in 1888 , Harvey negotiated to staff and provision those eating establishments as well. When the AT&SF acquired rail access to the rim of the Grand Canyon, Harvey created, in 1903 , the recreational and boarding accommodations there. His firm eventually also established corporate and public eating establishments that stretched from Cleveland, Ohio, to Los Angeles, California. Harvey's contributions to American culinary history are of a pioneering nature. His establishments and his reputation for quality played a critical role in attracting riders...

Coffeehouses

Coffeehouses   Reference library

Mark Pendergrast

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Beginning with the kaveh kanes , as fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Arab establishments were known, coffeehouses have provided a place for people to socialize over a cup of coffee and a bite to eat. The coffeehouse combined with café has a longer European pedigree, but the American Revolution was planned in Boston's Green Tavern, a coffeehouse that also served ale. In the 1950s smoky, atmospheric coffeehouses in cities such as San Francisco and New York fueled hipsters and beatniks. In the Vietnam War era, GI coffeehouses outside army bases...

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