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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

colonization

colonization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The successful establishment of an invading species in a habitat...

beat up

beat up   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...up A foresters’ phrase meaning to replace dead trees with new ones, especially during the early years of the establishment or re-establishment of a...

restoration ecology

restoration ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...ecology The establishment on a disturbed site of the plant and animal community which existed there prior to the disturbance. Compare rehabilitation ecology ; replacement ecology...

replacement ecology

replacement ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...ecology Where it is impossible to restore a site to its original condition, the establishment on it of a community entirely different from the original. Compare rehabilitation ecology ; restoration ecology...

afforestation

afforestation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1 The establishment of forest by natural succession or by the planting of trees on land where they did not grow formerly. 2 Historically, the act of defining an area of land that henceforth would become subject to forest ...

reforestation

reforestation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( reafforestation ) 1 The establishment of a particular type of woodland by planting into an existing, different woodland type. 2 The replacement of a tree crop by natural or artificial means on land from which a previous wood has been...

rehabilitation ecology

rehabilitation ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...ecology Where it is impossible to restore a site to its original condition, the establishment on it of a community which is similar to the original. Compare replacement ecology ; restoration ecology ; see also recreatability...

territoriality

territoriality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The establishment, demarcation, and defence of an area by animals, normally during mating ritual. Once territory has been established the animals can exist without disturbance and with sufficient food for the offspring. Evidence shows that among territorial species individuals without a territory rarely...

Juday, Chancey

Juday, Chancey (1871–1944)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Chancey ( 1871–1944 ) An American biologist who was a pioneer in the establishment of the science of limnology , through his studies of lakes in Wisconsin and of Lake Mendota in particular, made with his colleague Edward A. Birge . From 1931 until his retirement in 1941 Juday was professor of limnology at the University of...

‘burst of monsoon’

‘burst of monsoon’   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The abrupt onset of a marked change in weather conditions in the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia, associated with the arrival of humid south-westerly winds which displace the hot, dry, pre-monsoon regime. The changed surface-level wind pattern is related to the establishment of a high-level easterly jet stream...

blocking

blocking   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...In synoptic meteorology , the establishment in the mid-latitudes of a high-pressure system that interrupts or diverts for a considerable period the typically eastward movement of depressions and other synoptic features in the zonal flow . Over western Europe, for example, blocking often forces depressions to move northward towards Scandinavia or southward over southern France and...

germ plasm bank

germ plasm bank   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...plasm bank An establishment concerned primarily with the conservation of hereditary genetic material which may be lost through the process of genetic erosion . Germ plasm loss is a major concern in Asia, parts of Africa, southern Europe, and countries bordering the Mediterranean, where antiquated cultivars are rapidly replaced by new varieties. With the loss of older cultivars, qualities possessed by them may be lost permanently, and so cannot become incorporated in new varieties. Gene banks are an important source of germ...

genetic resources

genetic resources   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of domesticated cultivars and their ancestors, in order to maintain a wide genetic base. The wider the genetic base, the greater the capacity for adaptation to particular environmental conditions (e.g. a pathogenic presence, see pathogen ). This has led to the establishment of gene banks . Compare genetic erosion...

regeneration niche

regeneration niche   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...niche The specific niche that must exist in order for a plant to become re-established in an area it formerly occupied. A plant that can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions when mature may nevertheless require very specific conditions for the germination and establishment of its seeds. For example, the Californian redwoods require burned soil and many grassland plants need disturbed, bare microsites for their...

Hardy, Sir Alister Clavering

Hardy, Sir Alister Clavering (1896–1985)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in 1924 he was appointed chief zoologist to the 1901–04 Discovery expedition (the British National Antarctic Expedition), which studied whales in Antarctic waters. During this voyage he invented the continuous plankton recorder , a device that made possible the establishment of the most comprehensive monitoring system in the world. In 1928 he was appointed professor of zoology (and in 1931 also of oceanography) at University College Hull; in 1942 regius professor of natural history at the University of Aberdeen; and in 1945 Linacre...

assisted migration

assisted migration   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...migration 1 The intentional establishment of populations or metapopulations beyond the boundary of a species’s historic range for the purpose of tracking suitable habitats through a period of changing climate. This might involve migration between islands, up mountain slopes, and between mountain tops. The term was coined in 2004 by Brian Keel . 2 A technique used to establish a population of migratory animals in an area they did not formerly inhabit. For example, several groups of whooping cranes ( Grus americana ) raised in isolation from...

gene bank

gene bank   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...bank An establishment in which both somatic and hereditary genetic material are conserved. It stores, in a viable form, material from plants that are in danger of extinction in the wild and cultivars which are not currently in popular use. The stored genetic information can be called upon when required. For example, a crop may be needed that possesses a quality (e.g. tolerance to adverse climatic conditions) which cannot be found in currently exploited cultivars but was present in more antiquated varieties. The normal method of storage is to reduce the...

Gaian hypothesis

Gaian hypothesis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...by James E. Lovelock and Lynn Margulis and first advanced by Lovelock in 1968 , which holds that the presence of living organisms on a planet leads to major modifications of the physical and chemical conditions pertaining on the planet, and that subsequent to the establishment of life the climate and major biogeochemical cycles are mediated by living organisms themselves. Feedback mechanisms between the biotic and abiotic elements of the biosphere will tend to create stable conditions in which major environmental change is dampened. The resulting...

World Bank, The

World Bank, The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...institution established by treaty and governed by public international law. Its formal title is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The IBRD was established in 1944 by the Bretton Woods Agreement and is based in Washington, D.C. After the establishment of the United Nations (UN) in 1945 , the IBRD became a UN specialized agency. [See United Nations .] The World Bank Group now includes the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Development Association (IDA), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee...

Jefferson, Thomas

Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...the Louisiana territory from France in 1803 . Although Jefferson did not live to see it, the formation of the U.S. Geological Survey in 1879 was a direct result of the success of the Lewis and Clark expedition. In 1870 another dream of Jefferson's was realized with the establishment of the U.S. Weather Bureau to institutionalize the weather-data collecting that the Smithsonian Institution had carried on informally for several decades. Bibliography Bedini, S. A. Thomas Jefferson: Statesman of Science . New York: Macmillan, 1990. Gillispie, C. C. , ed. ...

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