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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

establishment fee

establishment fee   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... fee A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee ....

establishment fee

establishment fee  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A charge levied by a lender to establish a loan. See front-end fee.
front-end fee

front-end fee   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...fee 1. A charge levied by a lender when a loan is set up or when the first payment of the loan is taken. It may be a commitment fee , an establishment fee , or a documentation fee . 2. Any payment made at the beginning of a financial arrangement....

days of grace

days of grace   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...) 1. The interval between the establishment of a loan and the first due date for repayment. 2. Time given to defaulters to satisfy their obligations ( see grace and notice provision ). 3. The extra time allowed for payment of a bill of exchange or insurance premium after the actual due date. With bills of exchange the usual custom is to allow 3 days of grace (not including Sundays and Bank Holidays ) and 14 days for insurance policies. 4. The period elapsing between a security offer and the establishment of a sinking fund or purchase...

relationship banking

relationship banking   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...banking The establishment of a long-term relationship between a bank and its customers. The main advantage is that it enables the bank to develop in-depth knowledge of a customer’s business, which improves its ability to make informed decisions regarding loans to the customer. The customer expects to benefit by increased support during difficult times. See also bilateral bank facility ; syndicated bank facility...

Worker Benefits

Worker Benefits   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...and Employment. By design, the coverage of all three schemes overlap—they apply to workers earning Rs 6,500 or less per month employed at worksites or in establishments with 20 or more employees in certain specified industries and classes of establishments. In early 2003, these three schemes covered about 39.5 million workers in 344,508 establishments across 180 industries and classes of establishments (EPFO). The schemes are mainly financed by regular contributions from employers (EPF: 3.67 per cent of the covered wage bill; EDLI: 0.50 per cent; EP: 8.33...

Maastricht Treaty

Maastricht Treaty   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...force in 1993 . European Monetary Union was designed to be achieved in three stages, starting with participation in the Exchange Rate Mechanism ( ERM ). The second stage created the European Monetary Institute ( EMI ) to set qualifying conditions for a move towards the establishment of a single currency. It also provided for the creation of the European Central Bank . The third stage, achieved by January 1999 , locked member states into a fixed exchange rate and activated the European Central Bank as the governor of economic and monetary policy...

Agricultural Extension and Education

Agricultural Extension and Education   Reference library

Roy V. Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...colleges that existed by the end of the twentieth century were established under the provisions of the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 , which required that they offer residential instruction in agriculture. The Hatch Act of 1887 appropriated federal funds for the establishment in each state of one or more experiment stations to undertake systematic study of agricultural problems and to formulate scientific knowledge that could be presented in college classrooms. The stations were usually located at the land-grant colleges and commonly shared faculty...

World Federation of Trade Unions

World Federation of Trade Unions   Reference library

Victor G. Devinatz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Federation of Trade Unions The establishment of the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) in 1945 , according to Victor Silverman ( 2000 , p. 13), “marked a high point of the world working class movement.” With Socialists and Communists united in struggle and having defeated fascism in World War II, the world labor movement was unified for the first time in more than twenty years. Amid the rebuilding of the industrial economies destroyed during the war, hope remained high that international labor unity could be maintained and that the world could be...

Chase Manhattan Bank

Chase Manhattan Bank   Reference library

Timothy S. Wolters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...named it “Chase National Bank” in honor of his late friend Salmon P. Chase, who had served as President Abraham Lincoln's secretary of the Treasury. The new institution quickly became a bankers’ bank: by 1914 two thirds of its assets were deposits made by other banks. The establishment of the Federal Reserve at the end of 1913 forced Chase National to pursue other opportunities, something it did by distributing Liberty bonds and acquiring new commercial and industrial customers. During the 1920s the bank grew rapidly through a series of mergers and...

Forests and Forestry

Forests and Forestry   Reference library

Michael Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...legislatures to recognize the importance of timber cultivation and forest preservation. The resulting Report on Forestry ( 1884 ), funded by Congress and compiled by Franklin B. Hough and Nathaniel H. Egleston, became the foundational document of American forestry. The establishment of the American Forestry Association in 1878 and of the Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture further signaled forestry's growing role. Hough, Egleston, and then Bernhard Fernow, a German-born forester, became the first chiefs of the division. Fernow was...

Data Sets

Data Sets   Reference library

Reena Badiani, Siddharth Sharma, and Himanshu

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Census enumerates all establishments engaged in the production or distribution of goods and services other than for the sole purpose of self-consumption ( Government of India 2005 ). The census is conducted by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), a department in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. It covers all establishments without hired workers (‘Own Account Establishments’, or household enterprises), as well as those with hired workers (‘Directory and Non-Directory Establishments’), the only major...

Unionization Rates

Unionization Rates   Reference library

Barry T. Hirsch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Rates Statistics on labor union membership in the United States have been compiled from three types of data: reports from unions on their membership, establishment surveys, and household surveys. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) no longer compiles membership estimates from union reports or establishment surveys, relying instead on household data. Related sources of information include data from the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) on union-representation elections and information from the Department of Labor on large (thousand-plus)...

Alliance for Labor Action

Alliance for Labor Action   Reference library

Victor G. Devinatz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by the United Auto Workers (UAW) and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters in July 1968 , was formed in opposition to the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), the dominant U.S. trade union federation. The impetus behind the establishment of the labor combination was to organize the millions of nonunion workers throughout the country and to advocate for the social issues that the two founding unions perceived were being disregarded by the AFL-CIO. The ALA emerged out of the strained relationship during the mid-1960s...

Salt of the Earth

Salt of the Earth   Reference library

Scott Henkel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the Earth Salt of the Earth is a 1954 film directed by Herbert Biberman, one of the so-called Hollywood Ten, workers in the entertainment business who were blacklisted by the Hollywood establishment because of their alleged connections to Communists. The film depicts what was an actual New Mexico miners’ strike in 1950–1952 in which the spouses and sisters of the mostly Mexican American union miners replaced the men on the picket line after a Taft–Hartley Act injunction barred union members from picketing. The women's persistence and willingness to...

Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions

Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions   Reference library

Joseph A. McCartin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...organization. Initially the FOTLU focused on a legislative agenda that included laws abolishing child and convict labor, establishing an eight-hour workday and a national bureau of labor statistics, and restricting immigration. Later that agenda was expanded to include the establishment of a national holiday celebrating labor. Although a bureau of labor statistics was created in the Interior Department in 1884 , the other initiatives proved more difficult to advance, and the FOTLU lost momentum as membership in the Knights of Labor surged between 1884 and...

European Economic and Monetary Union

European Economic and Monetary Union   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and Monetary Union ( EMU ) The EU policy that culminated in the creation of the European Central Bank ( 1999 ) and a single European currency for participating states. Monetary cooperation between the member states of the European Union began in 1979 , with the establishment of the European Monetary System (EMS) , a system of exchange-rate stabilization. The EMS consisted of two main elements: the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) , under which participating countries committed themselves to maintaining the values of their currencies within...

Power Sector and Regulation

Power Sector and Regulation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...(Common Minimum National Action for Power), which included the establishment of the Electricity Regulatory Commissions (ERCs) at central and state levels. Moreover, the reforming states were under considerable pressure from multilateral lending agencies to create ERCs; a state government that created ERC was in a better position to get large funding from them. The Government of India enacted the Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act, 1998 (ERC Act 1998). The Act paved the way for the establishment of the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) at...

Labour Laws

Labour Laws   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...retrench workers or even close the establishment. This chapter is of comparatively recent vintage, having been added to the IDA in 1976 when it was legislated to cover establishments that employed 300 or more workers. Subsequently the Act was amended in 1984 to cover establishments employing 100 or more workers. Since labour legislation is in the Concurrent List of the Seventh Schedule of the Indian Constitution, amendments to the IDA at state level have resulted in further changes; for example, in West Bengal, establishments employing 50 or more workers come...

Pensions

Pensions   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...(EPS), administered by the Employees Provident Fund Organization (EPFO), amounted to Rs 23.55 billion (GoI 2004b). However, in contrast to a near-universal coverage in the public sector, there were only 1,758,841 pension beneficiaries (excluding beneficiaries from a few establishments operating their own pension funds), including 352,625 superannuation pensioners. Thus, despite registering the highest acceleration among the major items of government revenue expenditure in the past decade, the extant system of pensions does not cover a majority that is...

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