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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Owen, Richard

Owen, Richard   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...Owen cautiously began to formulate a theory of theistic evolution, arguing that individual species had come into existence by a preordained process of natural laws, for example, in his On the Nature of Limbs ( 1849 ).This view met with strong criticism from the Anglican establishment, and for much of the 1850s Owen remained a closet evolutionist. In the wake of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species ( 1859 ), however, he went public with his so-called derivative hypothesis, first in a Monograph on the Aye-aye ( 1863 ) and later in such other publications...

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...husbandry may therefore significantly influence, and even possibly accelerate, the evolution of influenza. Once introduced, the success of the pathogen in a new population depends on its establishment and dissemination within the population. Many zoonotic introductions are highly virulent and not readily transmissible from person to person, preventing their establishment. Both the evolutionary potential of the pathogen and chance will play a role in whether the infection will be able to establish itself. An analytic framework was developed by Anderson and...

Dobzhansky, Theodosius

Dobzhansky, Theodosius   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...associates, many of them from foreign countries. Some of the most distinguished geneticists and evolutionists in the United States and abroad are his former students. Dobzhansky spent long periods of time in foreign academic institutions and was largely responsible for the establishment or development of genetics and evolutionary biology in various countries, notably Brazil, Chile, and Egypt. Dobzhansky gave generously of his time to other scientists, particularly to students and young researchers, but he avoided administrative posts, alleging, perhaps...

Territoriality

Territoriality   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,186 words
Illustration(s):
2

...individual. In real life, daily changes in territory size, which mirror changing reserve levels, will be limited because territorial boundaries are often constrained by those of neighbors. Territory size may therefore reflect the individual's state at the time of territory establishment but bear little relationship to its current state. The fact that individuals vary in ways that impinge on the costs and benefits of territorial defense raises the interesting possibility that not all individuals are maximizing the same currency by being territorial. Indeed, in...

Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness

Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...why evolutionary psychology has developed the more formal notion of the EAA, rather than simply referring to the process of adaptation, lies in the particular problems of studying human evolution. If the human mind evolved under natural selection, it did so prior to the establishment of Homo sapiens , and over long periods of the past. However, few, if any, humans actually live under those conditions now. For example, at the time when the fossil evidence shows that the human brain was expanding (i.e., during the Pleistocene, between 2.0 and 0.2 million...

Myxomatosis

Myxomatosis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...is one of the few cases in which host–pathogen coevolution has been studied as it happened, rather than retrospectively. Preliminary studies of these changes were carried out by the Australian virologist Frank Fenner and his colleagues. A key feature of their work was the establishment of reference strains of both host and pathogen, which allowed them to track changes in the rabbit and the virus independently of each other. To do this, Fenner and his colleagues injected virus isolates from the field into groups of laboratory rabbits, and tested groups of...

Vestigial Organs and Structures

Vestigial Organs and Structures   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...of their formation shed light on the relationship between development and evolution. See also Adaptation ; Atavisms ; Homology ; Recapitulation . Darwin, C. On the Origin of Species . London, 1859. Chapter 13 illustrates the importance of vestiges and rudiments for the establishment of the theory of evolution. de Beer, G. R. Embryos and Ancestors . London, 1958. A classic in the discussion of the mechanisms of vestigialization. Fong, D. W. , T. C. Kane , et al. “ Vestigialization and Loss of Nonfunctional Characters. ” Annual Review of Ecology and...

Meiotic Distortion

Meiotic Distortion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,891 words
Illustration(s):
1

...initially limited in impact to the population dynamics of the specific drive and target loci, and other loci accidentally found in close linkage. Linked alleles (especially if they enhance drive) may enjoy indirect drive through genetic hitchhiking, leading eventually to the establishment of drive haplotypes. For strong drive, this haplotype may spread to fixation, eliminating polymorphism in a meiotic sweep. The haplotype may be further extended by incorporating chromosome rearrangements that reduce recombination and promote additional linkage disequilibrium...

Novelty and Key Innovations

Novelty and Key Innovations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
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2005

...The same effect was shown for other groups of fish that bear similar innovations. Another example is the successful evolution and radiation of snakes; a key innovation in the feeding apparatus involves the anterior separation of the left and right lower jawbones and the establishment of various kinds of joints. This permitted a tremendous new versatility of movement, enabling the capture and swallowing of very large prey, which in turn triggered a cascade of other specialized prey capture mechanisms in the mouth area, such as mobile upper jaws, fangs,...

Gene Families

Gene Families   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,228 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In vertebrates, the most convincing evidence that genome duplications have played a role in evolution is provided by the structure and organization of the Hox gene clusters. The Hox genes encode a class of DNA-binding transcription factors that play a crucial role in the establishment of cellular and tissue identity during embryogenesis. The closest relative of vertebrates, Amphioxus (Cephalochordata), displays a single Hox gene cluster, whereas lampreys, representing jawless vertebrates, are endowed with two or three independent sets of Hox gene...

Sex Chromosomes

Sex Chromosomes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,460 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and thus of sex chromosomes, in different angiosperm families ( Darwin , 1877 ; Westergaard, 1958 ). Reduction in crossing over between X and Y chromosomes. As suggested by H. J. Muller in 1918 , the first step in the evolution of sex chromosomes must have involved the establishment of restricted recombination between a pair of proto-X and proto-Y chromosomes. [ See Muller, Hermann Joseph .] This is a response to the need to prevent recombination among genes with primary sex-determining roles. The evolution of separate sexes from an initially...

Species Diversity

Species Diversity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,283 words
Illustration(s):
1

...tactics (such as toxic matrices) has forced many seed predators to specialize in seeds of particular species. Heavy seed predation coupled with species-specific seed predators holds down densities of various tree species and creates a mosaic of conditions for seedling establishment. Factors other than seed predation also limit the abundance of tropical tree species and prevent single-species dominance. Still another biotic variety of disturbance is the epiphyte load hypothesis, invoked to explain tropical tree species diversity. Light is a master...

Punctuated Equilibrium

Punctuated Equilibrium   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for long periods (up to 10 million years) in each species, based on morphometric measures of all standard parts, and not merely on single characters. Implications for Evolutionary Theory But does punctuated equilibrium make a difference to evolutionary theory? Does the establishment of punctuated equilibrium as an important or predominant pattern alter the structure of conventional Darwinian explanation in any major way—especially since the theory has nothing original to say about mechanisms and timings in the microevolutionary origin of species, since...

Reciprocal Altruism

Reciprocal Altruism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...to reach the safety of a burrow. Thus, reciprocity does not appear to be necessary to explain why meerkats exhibit sentinel behavior. Many species of birds defend territories to exclude competitors from mating or feeding in an area. Although fighting often precedes territory establishment, aggression is much less common among established neighbors, especially at breeding territories. This apparent restraint has been referred to as the “dear enemy” effect, and some investigators have proposed that it corresponds to a Prisoner's Dilemma. Studies on hooded...

Eugenics

Eugenics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and left. Morgan, T. H. Evolution and Genetics . Princeton, 1925. Müller-Hill, B. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others, Germany 1933–1945 . Translated by G. R. Fraser . Oxford, 1988. A study of how the German scientific establishment became an integral part of the racial and eugenic policies of the Nazi government. Paul, D. B. Controlling Human Heredity: 1865 to the Present . Amherst, N.Y., 1995. A brief history of eugenics, emphasizing its wide support among geneticists of the first half of the...

Experimental Evolution

Experimental Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,999 words
Illustration(s):
1

...evolutionary experiment might proceed in the following way. A large population of organisms is created and placed in a controlled environment in the laboratory. It is important that a great number of individuals (certainly hundreds, preferably millions) be used, to limit the establishment of particular alleles (alternative forms of the same gene) by chance alone. [ See Genetic Drift .] This population is then kept under these conditions for many generations, permitting adaptation to the general laboratory conditions. After this initial period, this population...

Extinction

Extinction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...or more of the species of large-bodied mammals from the Americas (including woolly mammoths, ground sloths, and glyptodonts), Australia (including diprotodonts and giant kangaroos), and Madagascar (including giant lemurs) appears to have approximately coincided with the establishment of human populations in these areas. All other things being equal, the energetic return to a consumer per unit of hunting effort will increase with the size of the prey, which must have made these species tempting targets. Of course, the harvesting activities of humans are not...

Genomic Imprinting

Genomic Imprinting   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,273 words
Illustration(s):
4

...This allows the pattern of methylation to be perpetuated through cell division. A = adenine. C = cytosine. G = guanine. T = thymine.Courtesy of Andrew Pomiankowski. Imprinting is reset in the germ line of both sexes. Genome-wide demethylation occurs soon after embryonic establishment of the germ line. This removes the preexisting maternal or paternal marks. As the germ cells start to differentiate into sperm and eggs, a process of de novo methylation begins. Unfortunately, little is known about the enzymes involved, how sites are identified for...

Vaccination

Vaccination   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,814 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( 1749–1823 ) pioneered vaccination, in particular, smallpox inoculation. Jenner lived and worked in the village of Berkeley in rural Gloucestershire. He had trained in London with a leading academic surgeon and, despite his country home, was a member of the intellectual establishment. In the decades before his birth, it had become widespread practice to purposefully infect children with pus from smallpox scabs to protect them from subsequent infections. This practice, called variolation, had been widely publicized by Lady Mary Montagu after she had seen...

Cooperation

Cooperation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...corresponding evolutionary chronicles show that there is a distinct trend toward the emergence of a population that cooperates almost always. If 2 P < T + S (in particular, if the benefit, b , is more than twice the cost, c ), then the computer runs end often with the establishment of the Pavlov strategy. This strategy prescribes to cooperate in the first round, and from then on to cooperate if and only if the other player, in the previous round, has chosen the same move as oneself. Pavlov embodies a win-stay, lose-shift rule, and hence a rudimentary...

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