View:

Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

secondary identification

secondary identification n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...identification n . In psychoanalysis , identification ( 2 ) occurring after the establishment of an object-relationship . See primary identification...

counselling

counselling n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...advice-giving, but the dominant ethos is one of providing facilitation without directive guidance. Counselling psychologists work with individuals, couples, and families in a variety of settings, including counselling agencies, general practitioners’ surgeries, educational establishments, business organizations, and private practice. US counseling . See assertiveness training , client-centred therapy , co-counselling , disaster counselling , educational psychology , genetic counselling , Gestalt therapy , marriage counselling , offender...

political correctness

political correctness n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to him as African American. See also ableism , fattism , herstory , heterosexism . politically correct adj . PC abbrev . [Coined by the US journalist Elinor Langer (born 1939 ) in the New York Times in 1984 , alluding to social conventions in the liberal establishment...

genital stage

genital stage n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...where he suggested that its roots lie in childhood: ‘The only difference lies in the fact that in childhood the combination of the component instincts and their subordination under the primacy of the genitals have been effected only very incompletely or not at all. Thus the establishment of that primacy in the service of reproduction is the last phase through which the organization of sexuality passes’ ( Standard Edition , VII, pp. 130–243, at p. 199). Also called the genital phase . See also genital character , genital love , pregenital...

psychophysics

psychophysics n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...them. It is concerned partly with the determination of absolute thresholds and difference thresholds , using variations of three classical methods called the method of constant stimuli , the method of limits , and the method of average error , and partly with the establishment of psychophysical functions and psychophysical scales . Among its greatest achievements are Weber’s law , Fechner's law , and the power law , and one of its most important modern forms is signal detection theory. See also absolute error , ABX paradigm , catch...

psychology

psychology n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the mind. Many textbooks define psychology simply as the study of behaviour, or the science of behaviour, but that too is to exclude much of psychology: the study of cognition , for example, is concerned with behaviour only indirectly, as evidence of mental processes. The establishment of psychology as an independent discipline, separate from the disciplines of philosophy and biology from which it emerged, is attributable to the German psychologist Wilhelm (Max) Wundt ( 1832–1920 ), who stated in the opening sentence of his book Principles of...

doubting

doubting   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
349 words

...is open to doubt; and, finally, there may be a malicious all-powerful demon who is bent on deceiving us, and so ‘the earth, sky, and all external things’ may be merely delusions. Cartesian doubt is not, however, an end in itself, but it is designed to clear the way for the establishment of a secure system of knowledge built on indubitable foundations. The questioning of accepted beliefs and preconceived opinions can be a valuable exercise both in philosophy and in science generally ( see common sense ). It seems, however, that to insist on indubitability as...

neurolinguistics

neurolinguistics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
490 words

..., Jakobson 1956 ), the term neurolinguistics and more systematic application of linguistic ideas have only become widespread since 1970 . In 1969 , the neurologist Henri Hécaen and the linguist Armand Dubois declared the object of neurolinguistics to be, first, the establishment of ‘a purely linguistic typology’ of neurologically caused verbal disorders, and, second, the achievement of an experimentally verifiable correlation of lesion sites with the linguistic types. In practice, however, it has proved difficult to use solely linguistic criteria of...

Walter, William Grey

Walter, William Grey (1910–76)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
594 words

...work on evoked potentials for the rest of that decade was tragically halted in 1970 by a severe head injury from which he never fully recovered. Grey Walter was a pioneer and an intellectual leader of world renown, but he was never fully accepted by the British scientific establishment. He wrote some 200 research papers and a uniquely stimulating book, The Living Brain ( 1953 ), which attracted many students to follow in his footsteps. (Published 1987) Ray...

mesmerism

mesmerism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,045 words

...a few grateful patients. Indeed his colourful personality and robust self-confidence created a distinct stir, first in court circles in imperial Vienna and later in the fashionable salons of pre-revolutionary Paris. Inevitably, perhaps, he incurred the odium of the medical establishment, and the French government was eventually led to appoint a royal commission to conduct an enquiry into animal magnetism under the chairmanship of Benjamin Franklin . Among its members were Lavoisier , the famous chemist, and Guillotin , who gave his name to the instrument...

Sufism

Sufism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
993 words

...came into being much later than teachers and schools, and they clearly resemble traditional orders in, for example, Christianity. The orders are therefore regarded as secondary, and few, if any, of their putative founders, famous Sufi masters, were really connected with their establishment. Their practices are mostly of a devotional autohypnotic nature, and produce conditioned states which are much at variance with essential Sufi theory relating to the need for individual and specificzteaching. Most groups which employ the name Sufi in the Middle and Far East...

Wundt, Wilhelm Max

Wundt, Wilhelm Max (1832–1920)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
858 words

...reductionist nor a dualist and that he believed that the field of application of experiment in psychology was distinctly limited. Wundt's autobiography, Erlebtes und Erkanntes ( 1920 ), gives a straightforward account of his life and career and describes in some detail the establishment of his Institute for Experimental Psychology. This narrative outlines in a most interesting way Wundt's relations with a number of his contemporaries, not least E. H. Weber and G. T. Fechner , both of whom resided in Leipzig and both of whom he came to know well, despite...

catecholamines

catecholamines   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
811 words

...appropriate to these states. It is of interest that drugs which appear to have clinical activity in alleviating depressive illness are able to act by altering the availability of noradrenaline at the receptor level. Noradrenaline fibres may also have a role to play in the establishment and selection of normal synaptic connections during development and in the recovery of function after damage to the nervous system. The third main group of catecholamine neurons of the brain are those utilizing dopamine as transmitter. These neurons have been the subject of...

plasticity in the nervous system

plasticity in the nervous system   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,654 words
Illustration(s):
6

...by the part of the retina that has been removed (Attardi and Sperry 1963 ). A similar phenomenon of the precise re-establishment of connections is demonstrated when half the tectum is removed ( Gaze and Sharma 1970 ). In this case, it is again only fibres from the appropriate half of the retina that are found to have re-established connections (Fig. 3). This shows, therefore, that the factors controlling the initial re-establishment of the nerve connections are acting in a quite unplastic way; no change results other than that directly attributable to...

cruelty

cruelty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,233 words

...stopped short of frank killing. Violently inflicted cruelty is the coinage of smash-hit novels, films, and TV series. The torture of animals for entertainment, a popular public spectacle until the establishment of humane societies in Europe and the United States in the late 19th century, continues clandestinely. The willingness of military establishments to develop technologies of cruelty as instruments of war flourishes globally, while the coercive forces of the state (and its opponents) use confessional and disciplinary cruelty for political ends. 4....

parapsychology: a history of research

parapsychology: a history of research   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,536 words

...early results in fact yielded just such sustained ‘above-chance’ scores and he swiftly claimed that he had established ESP as a legitimate phenomenon, or set of phenomena. As might be expected, however, his claims were met with considerable opposition from the psychological establishment. Were his subjects physically completely isolated from the experimenter so that information could not be passed over unwittingly—for example, by unconscious whispering or other non-deliberate cues? Were checks on the data and records precise enough to ensure that minor errors...

religion

religion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,566 words

...shall have to face up to the absence of God. Nobody can give us directions. We are alone in the cosmos. But the history of religions shows that they have an uncanny capacity for revival, even when they have seemed to be most dead. Hinduism was at a low ebb at the time of the establishment of the British Raj, and it was thought that the educated Indian would soon reject it. But far from rejecting it, he has done much to reinstate it. Its strength lies in the recognition of different levels of spiritual development, and it has a special attraction for men...

smell

smell   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,276 words

...its long history. In the fashions that have surrounded perfumery, sexual attractiveness may be involved. Certainly in many species, particularly the insects, naturally secreted odours, pheromones, play a sexual role. In mammals, pheromones also play an important role in the establishment of territories: the ‘marking’ activities of dogs are well known, and in other species special glands—for example, the cheek glands of the rabbit—produce marking chemicals. In the mouse the sexual and marking functions come together—the female will ovulate after smelling a...

spiritualism

spiritualism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,185 words

..., Sir William Crookes , Andrew Lang , Henri Bergson , Gilbert Murray , and William McDougall . Although both science and religion are concerned with the ultimate nature of reality, only in the case of spiritualism were scientific criteria thought to be relevant for the establishment of religious truth and falsehood. This overlap of interests and techniques is perhaps to be accounted for by, on the one hand, the concreteness of spiritualist claims and, on the other hand, the direction of much scientific research during the 1880s, which was concerned with...

asylums: a historical survey

asylums: a historical survey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,039 words
Illustration(s):
1

...be insane and that the nation was much moved by his sufferings. During the latter part of his reign the lunacy reform movement got under way. From the beginning of the 19th century parliamentary reports on the condition of lunacy followed one another in steady succession. The establishment of county lunatic asylums was prompted partly by moral outrage felt upon the discovery of the revolting and inhuman conditions of the insane and partly by the newly found faith in the possibility of cure. The committees submitting these reports consisted of well-meaning people...

View: