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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr.

Killian, James Rhyne, Jr. (1904–1988)   Reference library

Zuoyue Wang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television and then of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, devoted much of his energy to the establishment of public broadcasting in the United States. In 1973 , after President Richard Nixon abolished the PSAC over policy disagreements, Killian chaired a “blue ribbon” committee of the National Academy of Sciences, whose report was in part responsible for the establishment of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy in 1976 . [ See also Compton, Karl Taylor ; Higher Education and Science ; ...

Agricultural Education and Extension

Agricultural Education and Extension   Reference library

Roy V. Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...colleges that existed by the end of the twentieth century were established under the provisions of the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 , which required that they offer residential instruction in agriculture. The Hatch Act of 1887 appropriated federal funds for the establishment in each state of one or more experiment stations to undertake systematic study of agricultural problems and to formulate scientific knowledge that could be presented in college classrooms. The stations were usually located at the land-grant colleges and commonly shared faculty...

Blackwell, Elizabeth

Blackwell, Elizabeth (1821–1910)   Reference library

Nancy A. Sahli and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...decision to study medicine was prompted in part by a friend who died of uterine cancer, claiming that she would have sought medical advice earlier if a woman doctor had been available. Following considerable effort and difficulty, including opposition from the medical establishment, Elizabeth Blackwell was admitted to Geneva Medical College in New York, from which she graduated in 1849 . After postgraduate study in London and Paris, she returned to New York City, setting up a practice in 1851 . She and her sister Emily ( 1826–1910 ) established the...

Dentistry

Dentistry   Reference library

Daniel M. Fox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...access to preventive and restorative dental care became an activity of government as a result of the hiring of dentists by state health departments early in the twentieth century and the establishment in 1919 of a dental division of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS). The scope and influence of public-health dentistry expanded considerably after the establishment and validation by the PHS in the mid-1940s of a pilot program in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to fluoridate the public water supply to reduce the incidence of dental caries. The use of fluoride in...

Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine   Reference library

Susan D. Jones

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...through the 1930s (largely because of the Depression and the school closures), but this was reversed by the developments of the 1940s and 1950s: the establishment of new veterinary schools after World War II, the discovery of new therapeutics, and the rise of intensive animal production (also known as “factory farming”). Returning World War II veterans played a key role in demanding the establishment of new veterinary schools in state land-grant universities such as those in California, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma and...

Hale, George Ellery

Hale, George Ellery (1868–1938)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...refractor, the largest in the world at that time. Hale believed large telescopes were necessary for progress in astronomical research, especially in stellar astrophysics. He played an important role in convincing the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., to support the establishment, in 1904 , of the Mount Wilson Observatory in Southern California. The observatory included not only solar telescopes but also a 60-inch and, after 1918 , a one-hundred-inch reflecting telescope. Hale became a leader of the astronomy community in the United States. He was...

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...name in 1972 ; hence the acronym DARPA. Sputnik’s October 1957 success created a panic in Washington, D.C.; among the many organizational responses was the creation of DARPA within the Office of Secretary of Defense Neil McElroy so that a single agency within the defense establishment would have supervision over advanced weapons program research. The new agency would do research and development until such time as the technology became operational and was turned over to one of the military services or was judged of little value to the armed services....

Parsons, Talcott

Parsons, Talcott (1902–1979)   Reference library

Robert C. Bannister and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sought to construct a “grand theory” for social science. He drew on a functionalist tradition, proposing that society was a system made up of structures and substructures, each serving their own function in support of the overall system. In the two decades after Harvard’s establishment of a new department of social relations in 1946 , and notably in The Social System ( 1951 ), Parsons treated social structures in terms of the functions they served. He called his work “structural-functionalism” and “systems theory.” Beginning in the late 1950s, returning...

American Association for the Advancement of Science

American Association for the Advancement of Science   Reference library

Sally Gregory Kohlstedt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...in Public Life Drawn from the Presidential Addresses of the American Association for the Advancement of Science . Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1974. Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory , Michael A. Sokal , and Bruce V. Lewenstein . The Establishment of Science in America: 150 Years of the American Association for the Advancement of Science . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1999. Sally Gregory...

Lee, Tsung-Dao

Lee, Tsung-Dao (1926)   Reference library

Zuoyue Wang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Application program that brought approximately one thousand Chinese physics graduate students (“Lee scholars”) to the United States. Lee also played an active role in Chinese science and education policy, especially in the introduction of the postdoctoral system, the establishment of the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation, and the building of the Beijing Electron–Positron Collider. [ See also Fermi, Enrico ; Nobel Prize in Biomedical Research ; Nuclear Weapons ; Physics ; and Yang, Chen Ning . ] Bibliography Bernstein, Jeremy . A Co...

Maury, Matthew Fontaine

Maury, Matthew Fontaine (1806–1873)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...was badly injured in a stagecoach accident in 1839 , and the Navy decided to limit his duties to shore assignments. In 1842 , the Secretary of the Navy placed him in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments, which had been acquiring scientific instruments since its establishment in 1830 . The Depot sought to advance navigation through the application of hydrography, meteorology, the study of magnetism, and especially astronomy. Congress agreed to fund an astronomical observatory building, and when it was finished in 1844 , the Secretary of the Navy...

Morgan, Thomas Hunt

Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866–1945)   Reference library

Marga Vicedo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...and inheritance, as well as central issues in evolution, would require better understanding of development and thus continued to work on fundamental problems of embryology ( Experimental Embryology , 1927 ; Embryology and Genetics , 1934 ). A central figure in the establishment of experimental genetics and embryology in the early twentieth century, Morgan published over 20 books and about 370 research articles. He received numerous honors and became the president of several professional scientific societies, including the National Academy of Sciences...

Rogers, William Barton

Rogers, William Barton (1804–1882)   Reference library

A. J. Angulo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Dallas Bache, Louis Agassiz, and Benjamin Peirce, led to a constitutional crisis at the AAAS as well as disputes over the nature and character of the National Academy of Sciences. Rogers first began floating the idea of an institute of technology in a proposal for the establishment of a “School of Arts” for Philadelphia’s Franklin Institute in the 1830s and his “Plan for a Polytechnic School” for the Lowell Institute in the 1840s. Although both proposals failed to gain traction, they defined his interest in professionalizing studies in such fields as...

Berkner, Lloyd

Berkner, Lloyd (1905–1967)   Reference library

Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of their community. And as a government researcher, he was accepted as a leading statesman and policy maker. Berkner worked to maintain the involvement of the country’s scientists and engineers in military research and development after the war. He was instrumental in the establishment by the War and Navy Departments of the Joint Research and Development Board and served as the first chair. He also was involved in convincing the military services to operate “summer studies” that used the country’s elite technical experts to help define and solve military...

Agriculture, U.S. Department of

Agriculture, U.S. Department of   Reference library

Richard C. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Act of 1914 , which formed the Extension Service as a cooperative program of the USDA and land-grant colleges. The USDA became a cabinet-level department in 1889 . Secretary James Wilson ( 1897–1913 ) oversaw the expansion of scientific work in the bureaus, the establishment of federal experiment stations in new territories such as Hawai‘i and Puerto Rico, and the introduction of new crops and varieties by the “plant explorer” David Fairchild. Henry C. Wallace ( 1921–1923 ) increased the department’s work in agricultural economics, recognizing...

Forest Service, U.S.

Forest Service, U.S.   Reference library

James G. Lewis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...famine” and calls to protect watersheds for urban and agricultural water supplies. The agency’s research touted the questionable link of “forest influences” to climate moderation and water flow. Congress nonetheless passed the 1891 Forest Reserve Act, which authorized the establishment of forest reservations (renamed “national forests” in 1907 ) from public lands. The use of selective data to shape policy raised the question of the independence of research from administrators’ aims, an issue that remains today. The 1897 Forest Management Act’s declaration...

Gerontology

Gerontology   Reference library

Carole Haber

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of Health ; Public Health ; Public Health Service, U.S. ; Science ; Social Sciences ; and Tuberculosis . ] Bibliography Achenbaum, W. Andrew . Crossing Frontiers: Gerontology Emerges as a Science . New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Examines the establishment of gerontology in the United States in the twentieth century. The author finds that gerontology did not become the science envisioned by its early advocates; rather, its multidisciplinary approach challenged traditional specialization and boundaries. Achenbaum, W. Andrew , and...

Physiology

Physiology   Reference library

M. S. Laas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2015

...study of life as opposed to speculative or philosophical investigations. Beaumont’s work inspired the French physiologist Claude Bernard ( 1813–1878 ) to conduct his own experiments inducing gastric fistulae in animals. Although Beaumont was celebrated by the American medical establishment, his research did not spur further experimental work in the United States. A more significant response came from health reformers, who quickly adopted Beaumont’s tables on the speed of digestion of different foods to validate their own dietetic theories. Beaumont’s work was...

Office Technology

Office Technology   Reference library

Sharon Hartman Strom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and the Marshall Field department store in Chicago. Hollerith’s Computing Tabulating and Recording Company merged with the smaller International Business Machine (IBM) Corporation in 1924 and took its name. By leasing machines and selling keypunch cards to large business establishments, IBM became one of America’s most powerful and profitable corporations, eventually dominating the office-machine industry. Other office machines complemented this basic computing, typewriting, and tabulating technology. Mimeograph machines used typewritten stencils to...

Pseudoscience and Quackery

Pseudoscience and Quackery   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...pseudoscience, which, if anything, increased in usage during the late twentieth century with the rise of watchdog groups such as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Paranormal. Although employed most commonly to target ideas marginal to the scientific establishment, such as creation science, Afrocentric science, parapsychology, and “ufology” (the study of unidentified flying objects), the label pseudoscience also proved useful in besmirching scientific colleagues with whom one strongly disagreed: over racial differences in intelligence,...

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