View:

Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

establishment

establishment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... The successful growth and reproduction of plants and/or animals in a site that provides them with favourable...

Building Research Establishment environmental assessment methodology

Building Research Establishment environmental assessment methodology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Building Research Establishment environmental assessment methodology ( BREEAM ) An environmental assessment method for buildings aimed at promoting sustainable development . Factors assessed include the energy and water use, the working and living environment, the materials used, and the environmental impact of the building. The method considers building stock properties rather than behavioural factors....

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method   Quick reference

A Supplementary Dictionary of Renewable Energy and Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method ( BREEAM ) A standard that sets best practice in sustainable building design, construction, and operation, and measures a building’s environmental performance. The measures of performance include energy and water use, the internal environment (health and well-being), pollution, transport, materials, waste, ecology, and management processes. The accreditation enables developers, builders, designers, and building managers to demonstrate the environmental credentials of their...

establishment

establishment  

The successful growth and reproduction of plants and/or animals in a site that provides them with favourable conditions.
World Bank, The

World Bank, The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...institution established by treaty and governed by public international law. Its formal title is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The IBRD was established in 1944 by the Bretton Woods Agreement and is based in Washington, D.C. After the establishment of the United Nations (UN) in 1945 , the IBRD became a UN specialized agency. [See United Nations .] The World Bank Group now includes the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Development Association (IDA), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private sportsmen's clubs developed into the first official state fish and wildlife agencies. Concern with depletion of wild birds led to the establishment of several bird conservation organizations, notably the American Ornithologists’ Union ( AOU ) in 1883 , and the Audubon Society in 1886 , both of...

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...young, and seasonal closure of hunting was the principal form of wildlife management until the late 1800s, when these laws were augmented by the establishment of protected areas (led by the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 ). Some of the private sportsmen's clubs developed into the first official state fish and wildlife agencies. Concern with depletion of wild birds led to the establishment of several bird conservation organizations, notably the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) in 1883 , and the Audubon Society in 1886 , both of...

Montreal Protocol

Montreal Protocol   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...period for developing countries (Article 5 of the Protocol), linked to certain objective conditions 5. An enabling provision for the establishment of a Non-Compliance Procedure (Article 8 of the Protocol). Two important elements were still missing, however, and were added via the London Amendment of 1990 . First, an extension of the grace provisions for developing countries (Article 5), in particular the establishment of a clear link between the provision of financial and technical assistance by industrialized countries and the implementation of the...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed-fall, germination, and seedling establishment). Afforestation is forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. Forestation is undertaken when the natural processes of forest renewal are not working, are expected to work unacceptably slowly, or will result in a...

Global Environment Facility

Global Environment Facility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...for Environmental Aid: Pitfalls and Promise , edited by R. Keohane and M. Levy . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 55–87. Analyzes the interests and interactions of the GEF's key stakeholders during the GEF's establishment, pilot phase, and restructuring negotiations. Global Environment Facility. Instrument for the Establishment of the Restructured Global Environment Facility . Washington, D.C.: Global Environment Facility, 1994. As the GEF's “constitution”, the Instrument defines the roles and responsibilities of the GEF Assembly, Council,...

Greenpeace

Greenpeace   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in public opinion and tracing governmental policy changes directly back to efforts of particular activists, organizations, and campaigns. Nonetheless, there is some scholarly consensus that Greenpeace has had a significant influence on a number of issues. These include the establishment of the Basel Convention, which bans the exportation of toxic waste material from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to non-OECD countries, the strengthening of the International Whaling Commission′s moratorium on commercial whaling, and the...

Marine Pollution Convention

Marine Pollution Convention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Pollution of the Sea by Oil ( 1954 ), the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage ( 1969 ), the International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties ( 1969 ), the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage ( 1971 ), and the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter ( 1972 ). Primarily concerned with nonaccidental pollution, MARPOL established five pollutant-specific...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...(XXIII)] to convene the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which itself resulted in the creation of UNEP [by Resolution 2997 (XXVII)]. In 1988 , the General Assembly first recognized the significance of possible global climate change and endorsed the establishment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Resolution 43/905). It convened the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (where the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the FCCC, and a Statement of Forest Principles...

International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)

International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to reinforce regional and national networks in efforts to promote capacity development. IHDP focuses its regional and national network building activities in developing countries and regions through the establishment of national committees, national inventories of human-dimensions-of-GEC ( HDGEC ) researchers, and national contact points. The establishment of communities of HDGEC researchers on national and regional levels promotes collaboration, community building, best-practice and experience sharing, and allows for workshops on regionally relevant...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed fall, germination, and seedling establishment). This term is similar to affore station , which refers to forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. A third term, reforestation , has the same meaning as forestation . Forestation is a practice that is...

Australia and Global Change

Australia and Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...mass. Yet settlement has affected the whole of the continent with ecological impacts ranging from near complete destruction of ecosystems to support intensive agriculture on less than 10% of the continent, logging of nearly all commercially valuable forest, damming of rivers, establishment of plantations of eucalyptus species or exotic conifers, to subtler ecological changes such as altered wild-fire regimes and the introduction of exotic organisms in uncleared landscapes. The great rate of these ongoing changes and imperfect knowledge of the pre-colonization...

International Human Dimensions Programme On Global Environmental Change

International Human Dimensions Programme On Global Environmental Change   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Committees are an essential component of the IHDP's research strategy, emphasizing a bottom-up approach, and the IHDP is presently working with over twenty national committees and programs at various levels of development and activity. These activities are facilitated by the establishment of a quarterly newsletter, IHDP Update , and a Web site. As defined within the IHDP, the human dimensions of GEC encompass the full range of social and natural sciences disciplines necessary to analyze and understand humans' role as both the possible cause and the target of...

Leopold, Aldo

Leopold, Aldo   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...road-building on North America's remaining wild lands, he led efforts that in 1924 resulted in the designation of the nation's first wilderness area within the Gila National Forest in New Mexico. Leaving the Forest Service in 1928 , Leopold devoted himself to the establishment of wildlife management as a distinct field. First as an independent field researcher ( 1928–1933 ), then as professor at the University of Wisconsin ( 1933–1948 ), Leopold endeavored to apply the insights of ecology (especially as defined by his friend and colleague Charles...

Straddling and Migratory Stocks Agreement

Straddling and Migratory Stocks Agreement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of those stocks, was adopted and opened for signature. Under the Agreement, the parties are required to apply the precautionary principle to ensure the sustainable and responsible harvesting of the stocks. [See Precautionary Principle .] The Agreement relies heavily on the establishment and/or strengthening of regional and subregional arrangements or organizations. Both coastal states and distant-water-fishing nations are invited to participate in the work of these organizations to adopt measures that ensure long-term sustainability of the stocks and promote...

Biomes

Biomes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,179 words
Illustration(s):
1

...long periods of marginal climate. However, it is during the stage of tree regeneration (seedling establishment) that they are most vulnerable to climate change. Seedlings are highly sensitive to temperature and may be unable to grow under altered climatic conditions. This means that if climate zones do shift more rapidly than trees migrate, established adults of appropriate species and genotypes will be separated from the place where seedling establishment will be required in the future. It is probable that future climate change will not cause catastrophic...

View: