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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

lunitidal interval

lunitidal interval   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...interval The time between the transit of the Moon across the local meridian and the time of the next high tide; also known as the high water interval ( HWI ) or establishment of the port...

Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (DRAFT)

Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (DRAFT)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (DRAFT) (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales ( ONERA ; National Aerospace Research Establishment ) A French centre for aeronautics and space research, established in 1946 . It has taken part in all major French and European space and aeronautical programmes, including the Ariane rocket , the Concorde supersonic aircraft, and the Mars Express and Rosetta space probes. Under the French Ministry of Defence, ONERA serves as a scientific, technical, and public establishment with industrial and commercial responsibilities. It conducts research involving the...

Ames Research Center

Ames Research Center   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Research Center A NASA scientific and engineering establishment in Mountain View, California. It was founded in 1939 for aeronautical research and became part of NASA in 1958 . As well as aeronautics, Ames specializes in space life sciences and various branches of astronomy including Solar System exploration and infrared astronomy. http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/home/index.html Official...

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (DRAFT)

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (DRAFT)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (DRAFT) (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology ( KAIST ) A South Korean technology university (the ‘MIT of Korea’), which the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation selected in 1990 for the establishment of the KAIST Satellite Technology Research Center. KAIST receives financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Information and Communications for space research and the training of...

Space Telescope Science Institute (DRAFT)

Space Telescope Science Institute (DRAFT)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (DRAFT) (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Space Telescope Science Institute ( STScI ) The NASA establishment founded in 1981 at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, which operates the Hubble Space Telescope on behalf of its own researchers and other astronomers worldwide. STScI is developing the James Webb Space Telescope , Hubble's successor, which it will also operate when it is...

Goddard Space Flight Center

Goddard Space Flight Center   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Space Flight Center ( GSFC ) A NASA establishment at Greenbelt, Maryland, founded in 1959 , which performs Earth and space science research and satellite tracking. Goddard has designed and built numerous scientific satellites, including members of the Explorer series, and controls several astronomy satellites, including the Hubble Space Telescope. It houses the National Space Science Data Center ( NSSDC ). Goddard also manages Wallops Flight Facility, at Wallops Island, Virginia, which coordinates NASA’s sounding rocket and scientific balloon...

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Jet Propulsion Laboratory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...Propulsion Laboratory ( JPL ) A NASA establishment in Pasadena, California, founded in 1944 for missile development but which became part of NASA in 1958 . It is operated for NASA by the California Institute of Technology ( Caltech ). JPL tracks and controls space probes, as well as developing new planetary missions. JPL manages the world-wide Deep Space Network , including its own antennas at Goldstone in the Mojave Desert. JPL also operates an observatory at Table Mountain, California, altitude 2290 m, equipped with a 0.6-m reflector and smaller...

Johnson Space Center

Johnson Space Center   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Space Center ( JSC ) A NASA establishment near Houston, Texas, founded in 1961 to design and develop manned spacecraft, to select and train astronauts, and to conduct their missions. JSC houses the Mission Control Center for the International Space Station. Lunar samples collected by the Apollo missions and Antarctic meteorites are stored at JSC. http://www.nasa.gov/centers/johnson/home/index.html Official...

Kennedy Space Center

Kennedy Space Center   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018

...Space Center ( KSC ) A   NASA establishment on Merritt Island at Cape Canaveral, Florida, responsible for launching manned and unmanned spacecraft. Launch facilities built for the Apollo Moon missions were modified for use by the Space Shuttle and are being modified again for future manned missions. KSC is adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, where the launch pads for unmanned rockets are located. Cape Canaveral began operation as a missile test centre in 1950 . KSC opened on its present site in 1965 ....

Space Telescope Science Institute

Space Telescope Science Institute   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Telescope Science Institute ( STScl ) A NASA establishment for research with the Hubble Space Telescope. It was founded in 1981 at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, and is managed for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy . STScl plans the observing programme for the HST, and receives, analyses, and archives the resulting data. It will fulfil the same functions for the James Webb Space Telescope . http://www.stsci.edu/ Official...

Thiele, Gerhard Julius Paul (DRAFT)

Thiele, Gerhard Julius Paul (DRAFT) (1953– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (DRAFT) (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...astronaut with the European Space Agency ( ESA ). He flew on the Endeavour space shuttle flight in February 2000 for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission , logging over 268 hours in space. Thiele was selected to train as an astronaut at the German Aerospace Research Establishment in 1988 . In 1992 he joined NASA's Johnson Space Center ( JSC ) to train as a payload specialist. He trained for a second time at the JSC in 1996 , as a mission specialist, and joined the ESA in 1998 . He retired in 2005...

liquid cooling garment (DRAFT)

liquid cooling garment (DRAFT)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (DRAFT) (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...over the astronaut's body through small polyvinyl tubing woven into nylon spandex, a stretchy polyurethane fabric. The water then carries body heat back to the PLSS. The cooling virtually eliminates perspiration. It was devised by NASA and D R Burton of the Royal Aircraft Establishment in Farnborough, England, for the extravehicular mobility unit used by the Apollo astronauts on the...

Marshall Space Flight Center

Marshall Space Flight Center   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Space Flight Center ( MSFC ) A NASA establishment at Huntsville, Alabama, founded in 1960 by the transfer to NASA of part of the missile work of the US Army’s Redstone Arsenal. MSFC developed the Saturn series of launch rockets and the Skylab space station under the leadership of Wernher Magnus Maximilian von Braun ( 1912–77 ), and subsequently played a leading role in the development of the Space Shuttle and its rocket engines. It is now involved in developing future space launchers. MSFC houses the Payload Operations Integration Center for...

European Space Agency

European Space Agency   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Space Agency ( ESA ) An organization of European countries for cooperation in space research and technology, with its headquarters in Paris. ESA establishments include the European Space Research and Technology Centre ( ESTEC ) at Noordwijk, Netherlands; the European Space Operations Centre ( ESOC ), Darmstadt, Germany, which controls European space missions; ESRIN, the centre for data from remote-sensing satellites (formerly the European Space Research Institute), at Frascati, Italy; the European Space Astronomy Centre ( ESAC ) at Villanueva...

von Braun, Wernher Magnus Maximilian (DRAFT)

von Braun, Wernher Magnus Maximilian (DRAFT) (1912–1977)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (DRAFT) (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...) and early space flights by astronauts. Von Braun was born in Wirsitz (now in Poland) and studied in Berlin and Zürich. In 1930 he joined a group of scientists who were experimenting with rockets, and in 1938 became technical director of the Peenemünde military rocket establishment. He joined the Nazi Party in 1940 . In the last days of the war in 1945 , von Braun and his staff, not wishing to be captured in the Soviet-occupied part of Germany, travelled to the West to surrender to US forces. Soon afterwards von Braun began work at the US Army Ordnance...

Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales

Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales  

(ONERA;A French centre for aeronautics and space research, established in 1946. It has taken part in all major French and European space and aeronautical programmes, including the Ariane rocket, the ...
Johnson Space Center

Johnson Space Center  

A NASA establishment near Houston, Texas, founded in 1961 to design and develop manned spacecraft, to select and train astronauts, and to conduct their missions. JSC houses the Mission Control for ...
Joint Astronomy Centre

Joint Astronomy Centre  

An establishment in Hilo, Hawaii, owned by the UK, which operates the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, the latter jointly with Canada and the Netherlands. The ...
liquid cooling garment

liquid cooling garment  

(LCG)A body layer worn by astronauts. It has water circulating from the portable life-support system (PLSS) and over the astronaut's body through small polyvinyl tubing woven into nylon spandex, a ...
Gerhard Julius Paul Thiele

Gerhard Julius Paul Thiele  

(1953– )German astronaut with the European Space Agency (ESA). He flew on the Endeavour space shuttle flight in February 2000 for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, logging over 268 hours in ...

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