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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

normalization

normalization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...normalization 1. Establishment or return to “normal” or usual social, political, economic conditions after a period of upheaval. 2. Mathematical transformation of a set of data from log normal to normal. ...

standard setting

standard setting   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...standard setting Establishment by one or more of several methods of a set of criteria; e.g., for occupational exposure levels to workplace pollutants. The methods commonly require consensus development based on input from empirical observations, animal models, epidemiological studies, other toxicological findings, ergonomics, etc. ...

smoke abatement

smoke abatement   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...may be industrial furnaces and generators, or domestic cooking and heating fires, or both. The largest global source of smoke is biomass fuel combustion in domestic stoves. Smoke abatement measures include the use of smokeless fuel (this is not necessarily nonpolluting) and establishment of smokeless zones as in some European cities since the mid- 20th century . ...

institutional racism

institutional racism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...institutional racism ( systemic racism ) A situation in which staff members in an institution, such as a hospital, government department, educational establishment, or police force, share a collective prejudicial attitude toward members of a racial or ethnic group different from their own. This attitude tends to be communicated to new staff members and thus to be perpetuated. It may be localized to a particular site, but sometimes it pervades an entire organization, such as all or most of the components of a health care or law enforcement system. ...

workshop

workshop   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...workshop 1. A place where articles are made or repaired. It may be a large factory floor, a modest establishment with one or a handful of artisans, or a basement hobby room. Each of these can be safe or hazardous to workers and perhaps others in many ways. 2. A descriptive term for a gathering of people whose aim is to discuss and perhaps attempt to solve a social, medical, philosophical, or intellectual problem. ...

Commission on Macroeconomics and Health

Commission on Macroeconomics and Health   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Commission on Macroeconomics and Health A WHO-sponsored commission that investigated and made recommendations in 2001 focusing on the relationship between health improvement and economic development. Its recommendations led to the establishment of the global fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. It also considered the effect of globalized economics on the health status of people in low- and middle-income nations and on the importance of poverty reduction for economic growth and social betterment. See http://www.cmhealth.org/ . ...

Mormons

Mormons   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...duties that may include service in low-income countries, where they provide educational and health care facilities while also seeking converts. Their beliefs include opposition to family planning, as well as interest in tracing the ancestry of converts, which led to the establishment of a comprehensive data base on genealogy with information on family lineages from many parts of the world where the church has recruited new members. ...

therapeutic community

therapeutic community   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...custodial mental hospital and integrated patients into local towns in miscellaneous occupations. Many similar therapeutic communities have been established elsewhere in the United Kingdom and Europe and subsequently in the United States and Canada. The same term describes establishments such as Boys Towns, for emotionally disturbed and delinquent youths, and facilities for rehabilitation of substance abusers; evaluations often reveal lower rates of recidivism of disturbed youths than in reform schools, but therapeutic communities have been less successful in...

Registrar General's Occupational Classification

Registrar General's Occupational Classification   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...III, skilled workers, is divided into skilled clerical and skilled manual workers; Class IV is semiskilled workers, such as bank clerks, farm laborers, and factory assembly line workers; and Class V is unskilled workers (e.g., shop assistants and food servers in fast food establishments). This classification, first used in the 1911 census, was routinely used until the 1980s and remains a useful tool for many sociological, epidemiological, and economic analyses. Social class correlates closely with many causes of death, disease, and disability. See also ...

prevention, levels of

prevention, levels of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...type of disease (e.g., on the natural history of the disease ). Effective prevention strategies often interact and operate across levels. 1. primordial prevention : conditions, actions, and measures that minimize hazards to health and that hence inhibit the emergence and establishment of processes and factors (environmental, economic, social, behavioral, cultural) known to increase the risk of disease . Primordial prevention is accomplished through many public and private healthy public policies and intersectoral action . It is a form of primary...

standard setting

standard setting  

Establishment by one or more of several methods of a set of criteria, e.g., for occupational exposure levels to workplace pollutants. The methods commonly require consensus development based on input ...
normalization

normalization  

1 Establishment or return to “normal” or usual social, political, economic conditions after a period of upheaval.2 Mathematical transformation of a set of data from log normal to normal.
Commission on Macroeconomics and Health

Commission on Macroeconomics and Health  

A WHO-sponsored commission that investigated and made recommendations in 2001 focusing on the relationship between health improvement and economic development. Its recommendations led to the ...
workshop

workshop  

1 A place where articles are made or repaired. It may be a large factory floor, a modest establishment with one or a handful of artisans, or a basement hobby room. Each of these can be safe or ...
smoke abatement

smoke abatement  

Policies, practices, procedures, and methods aimed at reducing, preferably eliminating, atmospheric pollution with smoke from combusted carbon fuels. The sources of smoke may be industrial furnaces ...
accreditation

accreditation  

A process of formal recognition by a professional external body whereby an educational establishment or programme meets certain agreed quality standards.
therapeutic community

therapeutic community  

An approach to community-based management of psychiatric and related disorders, including emotionally disturbed adolescence, substance abuse, and mental retardation. In Scotland, the therapeutic ...
Quarantine

Quarantine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...or illness but without restricting movements; and segregation, the separation of some part of a group of persons or domestic animals from the others for special consideration, control, or observation — for example, removal of susceptible children to homes of immune persons or establishment of a sanitary boundary to protect uninfected from infected portions of a population. 48 , 69 , 160 , 188 2 . The word quarantine comes from the Italian quaranta , meaning forty, and refers to the 40 days arbitrarily (or empirically) believed to be an adequate isolation...

Prevention

Prevention   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...disease (e.g., on the natural history of the disease ). Effective prevention strategies often interact and operate across levels. 1 . Primordial prevention : conditions, actions, and measures that minimize hazards to health and that hence inhibit the emergence and establishment of processes and factors (environmental, economic, social, behavioral, cultural) known to increase the risk of Disease . 213 , 678 Primordial prevention is accomplished through many public and private Healthy public policies and Intersectoral Action . It may be seen as...

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