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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Bertrand Ramcharan

Bertrand Ramcharan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,216 words

...providing timely advice and clarifying both short- and long-term goals. Under the leadership of Theo van Boven, Ramcharan initiated the process that led to the establishment of the first special procedures on enforced and involuntary disappearances, arbitrary and summary executions, and torture. He also initiated the call for the first country rapporteur on Chile and steered the establishment of this office. As acting high commissioner, he exercised his “right of initiative” and launched fact-finding investigations into conditions in Côte d’Ivoire, Darfur,...

National Human Rights Institutions

National Human Rights Institutions   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,765 words

...a detailed set of principles on the status of national institutions at a meeting in Paris sponsored by the United Nations. These principles were subsequently endorsed by the Commission on Human Rights and the General Assembly, and they have become the foundation for the establishment and operation of NHRIs. The Paris Principles, as they are known, state that national institutions should be given the broadest possible mandate that is legitimized by a constitution or legislation. Among the specific tasks described by the Paris Principles are submission of...

Japanese Sexual Slavery

Japanese Sexual Slavery   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,025 words

...imperial forces. In army inventories the women were listed as military supplies, cargo, or amenities, and the women arrived together with other essential war supplies, such as ammunition. The establishment of comfort stations thus was regarded as necessary to the Japanese war effort. But why did the Japanese government and military resort to the establishment of comfort stations to solve the problems they encountered? When the first comfort stations were established in 1932 in Shanghai, many of the basic elements of the comfort women system were already...

South Africa

South Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,734 words

...the human rights project. Apartheid became the focal point for the pursuit of human rights, especially the right to be free from all racial oppression. The establishment of a constitutional democracy in South Africa in 1994 was seen as a triumph for global human rights advocates, who have embraced the postapartheid South Africa as the quintessential postcolonial human rights state. The establishment of a postapartheid constitutional model of government has also provided succor to those individuals and communities who labor under repressive forms of...

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,046 words

...question of the establishment of a United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.” Thus the World Conference made the significant recommendation that the General Assembly would take up, as a matter of priority, the question of establishing a high commissioner for human rights. As the final Vienna document made clear, there was a shift of emphasis in the proposed role of the high commissioner: from monitoring and implementation to coordination and management. The Mandate Since the World Conference in Vienna reintroduced the establishment of a high...

Iran from 1979

Iran from 1979   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,409 words

...the existence of a crisis of legitimacy and a crisis of confidence in the ruling conservative establishment. The ensuing pro-regime demonstration, organized by the conservative establishment to counter student protests, failed to restore the lost confidence. The Seventh Parliamentary Elections A low turnout in Iran's sham parliamentary elections ( 2004 ) was the end of the reform process and the beginning of the consolidation of religious-revolutionary establishment reminiscent of the early years of the Islamic Republic. The exclusion of eighty incumbent...

Anti-Slavery International

Anti-Slavery International   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,021 words

...human rights organization. Founded in 1839 , when many hopes of abolitionists had fallen short of accomplishment, it has continued to press for the total elimination of slavery in all its forms. The phenomenon of slavery has changed dramatically in the many decades since the establishment of Anti-Slavery. Hence, the organization has adapted new approaches and strategies while maintaining its steady focus on slavery. The more than 170 years since its founding have seen slavery transformed from a relatively widely accepted practice to one condemned by public...

John Humphrey

John Humphrey   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,985 words

...of the (first) Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, which allowed individuals to bring complaints against their own governments. In his last five years at the UN, Humphrey also worked on some early means of implementation. These included the periodic reporting system and the establishment of the highly successful seminar series, which involved workshops on a variety of human rights issues at locales throughout the world. He also served on a UN commission to examine alleged human rights abuses of Buddhists by the Diem regime in South Vietnam. This mission was...

Ethiopia

Ethiopia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,906 words

...on 12 September 1974 deposed and arrested Haile Selassie I and established itself as the new state power. The civilian left, based in the student movement, but also with followers in the civil service and the military, and reinforced by returnees from abroad, demanded swift establishment of a civilian-led people's government. The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party ( EPRP ), the strongest party of the left, totally rejected the rule of the Derg, but other left organizations joined the Derg in a tactical alliance against the EPRP. To attract popular...

Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,300 words

...that would undo the revolution. During the Hundred Flowers campaign, meant to let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools debate, Mao encouraged intellectuals to criticize party cadres in order to improve the work of the party, a policy initiative resisted by the party establishment. But once intellectuals began to criticize the party to an extent beyond Mao's expectation, he reversed course and launched the Anti-Rightist campaign against the intellectual critics of the party. A reported 300,000 intellectuals and professionals were labeled “rightists,” a...

Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Sakharov   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,578 words

...There he met his first wife, Klavdia, with whom he had three children; she died in 1969 . In 1945 Sakharov began graduate studies under Igor Tamm at the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences (FIAN). In 1948 Sakharov began a twenty-year career in the Soviet nuclear establishment when he was included in a group under Tamm that was charged with building a hydrogen bomb. In 1950 Sakharov moved to Arzamas-16, a secret city dedicated to nuclear weapons production, where he also worked with Tamm, this time on the design of magnetic thermonuclear reactors....

Jacobo Timerman

Jacobo Timerman   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,263 words

...and Politics Despite his lack of formal education, Timerman developed an outstanding career as a political journalist. After resigning from Nueva Sión in 1953 , he worked for several news agencies through which he started developing close links with the political establishment. In 1957 , he joined La Razón , a prestigious, leading Buenos Aires newspaper. Between 1958 and 1962 , he worked with great success for six newspapers and for radio and TV. His golden times started in 1962 , when he founded Primera Plana , which was similar to the...

INTERIGHTS

INTERIGHTS   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,511 words

...Guidelines on the Right to a Fair Trial and Legal Assistance in Africa,” a document adopted by the Commission. These principles now have binding force on African Union countries. INTERIGHTS also played a role in drafting the protocol adopted by the African Union regarding the establishment of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. Information Dissemination INTERIGHTS’ regular dissemination activities are through the quarterly Bulletin and the twice-annual Commonwealth Human Rights Law Digest and through its Web site. It also distributes...

International Criminal Court

International Criminal Court   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,546 words

...it will become one of the most important international institutional innovations since the establishment of the United Nations ( UN ) and the Bretton Woods financial institutions after World War II. Whether the court will fulfill this potential depends on the nature of governments’ support for it and the creative professionalism with which it performs its weighty duties. More than 160 governments participated in the UN Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court that drafted the Rome Statute, meeting in the last...

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,178 words

...or bear much fruit. In pursuing greater adherence to the rule of law and protections for human rights, the governing elite faces often stiff opposition from the religious establishment, which dominates the mosques, the classrooms, and the courts and which rails against modernity in defense of Sharia or Islamic values. The historic stranglehold of the religious establishment's narrow interpretation of Sharia is what differentiates Saudi Arabia from its neighbors in the Gulf and has put a brake on many reforms. This entry examines human rights practices...

West Bank and Gaza

West Bank and Gaza   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,224 words

...recently, the International Court of Justice. The establishment of settlements in the West Bank and Gaza has had a major impact on the human rights of Palestinians. This is manifested in numerous ways. Right of self-determination. While some settlements were established from 1967 to 1977 , during the period when the Labour Party was in power in Israel, the major push to the settlement policy came after the Likud Party came to power in 1977 . The declared intention of this policy became to prevent establishment of a Palestinian state in the territories occupied...

Indigenous Rights Movement

Indigenous Rights Movement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,132 words

...and other human rights violations directed against indigenous peoples, and began to consider recommendations that could alleviate this abuse. Four years later the UN hosted a second international conference on indigenous peoples and the land. These meetings led to the establishment of a working group on indigenous populations as part of the subcommission. A unique feature of the working group was that it permitted any indigenous representative to attend and even speak at its regular sessions, including tribal leaders and others who were unaffiliated with...

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,532 words

...(the latter moved to neutral Geneva at the start of World War II and stayed there). The dynamism of Davison and his close association with Wilson were reflected in Article 25 of the League of Nations Covenant: “The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the establishment and co-operation of the duly authorized voluntary national Red Cross organizations having as purposes the improvement of health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering throughout the world.” Although the request for this language was officially submitted by...

Slobodan Milošević

Slobodan Milošević   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,375 words

...Achmed Sukarno , and Yugoslavian president Tito .) What later became striking about Milošević was the absence of any obvious ideological motivation at all. He was a true chameleon, able to inspire support for his nationalist policies from both the public and the Communist establishment which never noticed Milošević had left behind their ideological doctrine—both failed to recognize his true aim, achieving unbridled personal power. Some termed it a television dictatorship backed up by police. Already by 1990 some people with influence in the political world...

United Kingdom

United Kingdom   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,998 words

...(for example, the Anti-Terrorism, Crime, and Security Act of 2001 ; the Terrorism Act; and the Immigration, Nationality, and Asylum Act) the powers of the Home Office, the police, and the Security Service. These powers extend across a wide range of issues relating to the establishment and maintenance of terrorist organizations, the incitement of terrorist acts on British soil, the involvement in international terrorism, and the support more generally of terrorist organizations and acts as well as the glorification of terrorism itself. Through introduction...

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