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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Church and State, Separation of

Church and State, Separation of   Reference library

William M. Wiecek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
914 words

... ( 1997 )). Issues involving the “establishment” clause generally proved more controversial, however, evoking efforts for constitutional amendments to overturn Supreme Court rulings. Questions of state aid to parochial schools and released time for religious education ignited the controversy. In Everson v. Board of Education ( 1947 ), Justice Hugo Black adopted a strict interpretation of separation and imposed Jefferson ’s metaphor of “a wall of separation” as a canonical reading of the First Amendment. Establishment controversies nevertheless continued,...

Buckley, William F., Jr.

Buckley, William F., Jr.   Reference library

J. David Hoeveler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
303 words

... Buckley himself did not develop a consistent intellectual conservatism; his opinions could reflect any of the varieties he welcomed in his magazine. Usually, however, he saw American conservatives as a beleaguered minority standing against a dominant and privileged liberal establishment. Against this ascendancy, Buckley defended a conservative counterculture and its tribal loyalists. Through his longevity, sustained productivity, and public visibility, Buckley served the conservative intellectual movement as a paterfamilias. [ See also Anti-Communism ;...

Alcatraz, Occupation of

Alcatraz, Occupation of   Reference library

Troy Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
741 words

...occupation. Federal marshals removed the remaining protesters, nineteen months after Indians of All Tribes first occupied the island. The success or failure of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island should not be judged by whether the demands for title to the island and the establishment of the various institutions on the island were realized. The underlying goals of the Indians on Alcatraz Island were to awaken the American public to the reality of the plight of the first Americans and to assert the need for Indian self-determination. In this they were indeed...

Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

...Bureau of Investigation in the Justice Department, and national security with the Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917 and 1918 , respectively. During the New Era of the 1920 s, the administrative state was further expanded with the enactment of Prohibition, as well as the establishment of new regulatory agencies. These agencies, such as the Civil Aeronautics Board for air travel and the Federal Communications Commission for radio, helped foster the grow of these industries. The collapse of the economy into the Great Depression in 1929 posed a severe test...

Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights   Reference library

John P. Kaminski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,417 words

...this incorporation extends the Bill of Rights is still a matter of debate. Certain of the amendments in the Bill of Rights have proven particularly contentious and have generated much litigation, judicial interpretation, and public discussion. The First Amendment’s ban on an “establishment of religion,” coupled with its prohibition against any restrictions on the “free exercise” of religion, has been the basis of many court challenges involving the separation of separation of church and state. Similarly, the First Amendment’s guarantee of freedom of speech and...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...expansion. In FY 1960 expenditure and receipts each constituted 17.8 percent GDP compared with 9.8 percent and 6.8 percent, respectively, in FY 1940 . Spending composition now prioritized defense over domestic programs. With the Cold War necessitating a huge military establishment, national security averaged 56 percent of outlays in FY 1955 – 1961 . Reinforced by the Employment Act of 1946 , which mandated federal maintenance of purchasing power, the budget also became the primary instrument of economic policy. Post- 1945 Democratic and Republican...

Civil Liberties

Civil Liberties   Reference library

Patrick M. Garry and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,079 words

...s, however, calls for censorship came from political liberals advocating speech codes and advertising restrictions on “politically incorrect” speech. Perhaps the most heated and controversial of civil-liberties issues in the 1990 s were ones involving the First Amendment’s establishment-of-religion clause, such as crèches on public property, secular books for parochial school students, and prayer at public events. Yet despite public pressures, the strict church–state separation laid down by the Warren court survived. The end of the twentieth century brought...

Engel v. Vitale

Engel v. Vitale   Reference library

Kermit L. Hall

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
307 words

... Hugo Black ’s majority opinion assuming a high wall of separation between church and state, declared the prayer an unconstitutional violation of the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause. Using public schools to encourage prayer, Black argued, was “a practice wholly inconsistent with the Establishment Clause.” Justice Potter Stewart ’s lone dissent reasoned that the Establishment Clause only forbade government from establishing an official church and coercing religious beliefs. President John F. Kennedy supported the Court by noting that Americans...

O’Connor, Sandra Day

O’Connor, Sandra Day   Reference library

G. Edward White

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
490 words

...Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1981 . O’Connor ’s principal contributions to the Court’s constitutional jurisprudence came in the areas of religion and federalism. In Lynch v. Donnelly ( 1984 ), she outlined an approach to cases involving the First Amendment’s establishment clause that focused on when the government could be said to have “endorsed” religion. A decade later, that approach appeared to command a majority of the Court. In federalism cases, O’Connor ardently defended state sovereignty. Her dissent in Garcia v. San Antonio ...

Daley Richard J.

Daley Richard J.   Reference library

Roger Biles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
592 words

...suppression of dissent at the 1968 Democratic National Convention and his infamous “shoot to kill” order during the rioting following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. , he became widely regarded as a symbol of law and order and an intractable defender of the establishment. As growing numbers of whites left for the suburbs and Chicago ’s black population increased rapidly, the mayor consistently aligned himself politically with the conservative white ethnics who remained in the city. He resist- ed residential desegregation, defended the public...

Eighteenth Amendment

Eighteenth Amendment   Reference library

Richard F. Hamm

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
586 words

...predominantly “wet” Democrats into national office, assured the speedy demise of national Prohibition. The Eighteenth Amendment produced long-lasting consequences for American law and constitutionalism. National Prohibition stimulated growth in the federal law-enforcement establishment, a process that did not disappear after repeal. The Eighteenth Amendment directly shaped the constitutional system by specifying a seven-year time limit for ratification. Such limits subsequently became customary, allowing amendment opponents to translate delay into defeat. [...

National Security Act of 1947

National Security Act of 1947   Reference library

Anna Kasten Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
589 words

...Security Act of 1947 This measure, signed into law by President Harry S. Truman on 26 July 1947 , created four new coordinating agencies: the National Military Establishment, directed by a secretary of defense; a National Security Resources Board to ensure preparedness for a future war; a National Security Council to advise the president on national security policy; and a director of central intelligence to coordinate the military and civilian intelligence services. The 1947 act reflected the experience of World War II and the subsequent recognition...

Northwest Ordinance

Northwest Ordinance   Reference library

Paul G. E. Clemens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
689 words

...companies and speculators. With land now for sale, Manasseh Cutler , an agent for the Ohio Company (a group of speculators), and others pressured Congress to provide a more specific plan of governance. The 1787 Ordinance set forth this plan. It called for the eventual establishment of three to five states in the region. Congress would initially appoint a governor and other officials for each future state. When the free adult male population reached 5,000, an elected assembly and an appointed legislative council would jointly elect a nonvoting delegate to...

Perot, Ross

Perot, Ross   Reference library

Laura Jane Gifford

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
653 words

...to Texas , where he took a job as a salesman with IBM in Dallas . In 1962 , he left the company to begin his own computer services firm, Electronic Data Systems (EDS). Perot capitalized on the federal government’s enormous data-processing needs following Medicare’s establishment in 1965 , securing contracts with state medical organizations that brought EDS rapid growth and profits. With revenues skyrocketing from $865,000 in 1965 to over $7.5 million in three years, Perot’s company staged one of the most successful public stock offerings of 1968...

Prayer in School

Prayer in School   Reference library

Steven K. Green

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
649 words

...in an 8-to-1 decision struck down the recitation of a prayer approved by the New York Board of School Regents. Although the prayer was nonsectarian in content and student participation was voluntary, the Court held that it was still a religious exercise and violated the Establishment Clause of the Constitution. Interpret-ing that clause, the Court held that the government “is without power to prescribe by law any particular form of prayer which is to be used as an official pray in carrying on any [government] program.” The following year the Court struck...

Public Opinion

Public Opinion   Reference library

Erik W. Austin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
548 words

...s and 1940 s, scientific polling and the use of probability samples improved methods for collecting information on the public’s opinion. Notable in this era were George Gallup’s founding of the influential American Institute of Public Opinion (Gallup Poll) in 1935 and the establishment of such university-based survey organizations as the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago and the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan . As regular polls and somewhat more scientific nationwide surveys proliferated, these...

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Reconstruction Finance Corporation   Reference library

Ellis W. Hawley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
610 words

...markets and bring the credit expansion needed for economic recovery. Subsequently, in July 1932 , the agency was given additional capital and authorized to extend agricultural credits, relief loans to states, and loans for self-liquidating works projects. Initially, its establishment slowed bank failures. But it brought little credit expansion, and it quickly became the subject of intense criticism, primarily for its alleged favoritism to the rich and powerful, its strict security requirements, and its stringent rationing of relief loans. Nor were its...

Rockefeller, Nelson

Rockefeller, Nelson   Reference library

Geoffrey Kabaservice

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
567 words

...’s hard-line stance against Communism and in favor of American involvement in the Vietnam war, conservatives opposed his civil rights efforts and his drive to make New York the model of a high-tax, high-service state and demonized him as a symbol of the eastern establishment. Rockefeller represented a commingling of financial and political power that worried liberals as well, and he alienated many with his punitive laws against the sale and use of illegal drugs and his decision to forcibly suppress a riot at Attica Prison in 1971 . As vice...

Schlafly, Phyllis

Schlafly, Phyllis   Reference library

Donald T. Critchlow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
564 words

...to become a constitutional amendment. Schlafly , a conservative activist within the Republican Party, brought other ERA opponents togeth-er to prevent ratification of the amendment. Schlafly remained active in conservative circles after the anti-ERA crusade through the establishment of her St. Louis–based organization Eagle Forum, a grassroots organization involved in “profamily” issues. Schlafly was born in St. Louis, Missouri , on 15 August 1924 . She grew up in a modest middle-class, Roman Catholic family in the Great Depression. When her father...

AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT

AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...Act of 1914 , which formed the Extension Service as a cooperative program of the USDA and land-grant colleges. The USDA became a cabinet-level department in 1889 . Secretary James Wilson ( 1897 – 1913 ) oversaw the expansion of scientific work in the bureaus, the establishment of federal experiment stations in new territories such as Hawai ‘i and Puerto Rico , and the introduction of new crops and varieties by the “plant explorer” David Fairchild . Henry C. Wallace ( 1921 – 1923 ) increased the department’s work in agricultural economics,...

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