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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., The A term long used to denote in particular the established church of england , but now a popular designation for the group or class of people who have authority within a society, especially, in Britain, those who control not only the Church of England but the government, the civil service and the armed forces. It has a somewhat derogatory significance associated with reaction, privilege and ‘stuffiness’. By the ‘Establishment’ I do not mean only the centres of official power – though they are certainly part of it – but rather the whole matrix...

Establishment, the

Establishment, the   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

..., the a group in a society exercising power and influence over matters of policy or taste, and seen as resisting change. The term is recorded intermittently from the 1920s, but in British English derives its current use from an article by the journalist Henry Fairlie in the Spectator of 1955...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of London Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

..., The An ironically named club founded in 1961 by Peter Cook ( 1937–95 ) and Nicholas Luard ( 1937–2004 ). Based at 18 Greek Street, Soho , the Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-establishment satire boom of that era. It closed in 1964...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...exercised … the ‘Establishment’ can be seen at work in the activities of, not only the Prime Minister, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Earl Marshal, but of such lesser mortals as the Chairman of the Arts Council, the Director-General of the BBC, and even the editor of the Times Literary Supplement , not to mention dignitaries like Lady Violet Bonham Carter . henry fairlie : in The Spectator ( 23 September 1955 ) In the early 1960s, Peter Cook 's ironically named London club The Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-Establishment satire boom of...

North

North   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by pleading parliamentary privilege. Northeast Passage, The A hoped-for route to the east round the north extremity of Asia. It was first attempted by Sir Hugh Willoughby ( d. c. 1554 ) and Richard Chancellor ( d.1556 ) in 1553–4 , and its only practical result was the establishment of the Muscovy Company ( 1555 ). The passage was traversed by the Swedish explorer Nils Nordenskjöld in 1879 . Northern Bear, The An old nickname for Russia. In political cartoons the former USSR was often depicted as a bear. Northern gate of the sun, The The sign of cancer...

Cambridge English

Cambridge English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Cambridge English . A name for English literature as taught at the U. of Cambridge since the establishment in 1912 of the Edward VII Chair of English Literature, whose first incumbent was Arthur Quiller-Couch : ‘Eventually an English Tripos [final honours degree examination] was proposed and agreed to in 1917 , when, it was remarked, many of the dons who might have opposed it were away at the war. The ensuing Golden Age of Cambridge English has been widely commemorated in myth and memoir’ ( Bernard Bergonzi , Exploding English , 1990 ). Major figures...

Plagiarism

Plagiarism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...insofar as educational institutions invite students to model themselves on others, a degree of plagiarism and pastiche are built into the acquiring of creative skills. The concept of plagiarism as a serious legal offence became clear-cut with the growth of printing and the establishment of authors and publishers as people and institutions with property rights. See derivative quotation . ...

Orwell, George

Orwell, George (1903–50)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Orwell, George ( 1903–50 ) . Pen name of Eric Arthur Blair , English novelist, journalist, and political thinker. The adoption in 1933 of the pen name, taken from the River Orwell in East Anglia, marked his transformation from a member of the establishment of the British Empire into a social, political, and literary radical. He was born in Montihari, Bengal, India, the son of a British civil servant, and educated at Eton (where Aldous Huxley was one of his masters). From there he went in 1922 to serve in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, but...

Social Networking Sites

Social Networking Sites   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Social Networking Sites ( SNS , Social Networking Services ) . Sites or services which facilitate the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal relationships through online platforms. Individuals use SNSs to befriend, follow, ‘like’, or form groups with others, with individual ties hence leading to the construction of larger social formations. These networks can be ego-centred or shaped around perceived mutual interests in people, organizations, and/or events. For example, one of the most popular SNS networks, Facebook, facilitates personal...

Hebrew

Hebrew   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... a cooperative Israeli farming community, sabra a native-born Israeli. English in Hebrew The lexical and semantic influence of English on Israeli Hebrew has been considerable. During British rule in Palestine ( 1917–48 ), English was an official language. Following the establishment of Israel in 1948 , the influence of English on Hebrew continued through American Jewish immigration, various English-language periodicals (notably the Jerusalem Post ), and English-language motion pictures and television programmes (though most are subtitled in Hebrew)....

Shaw, George Bernard

Shaw, George Bernard (1856–1950)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...accent and usage. Shaw’s knowledge of phonetics and views on literacy led him to demand a rational system of spelling which would follow the sounds of English and reduce time wasted by traditional orthography. Having campaigned for spelling reform , he left a bequest for the establishment of a suitable new alphabet reflecting ‘pronunciation to resemble that recorded of His Majesty our late King George V and sometimes described as Northern English’. A system was devised into which the play Androcles and the Lion ( 1912 ) was transcribed (published in 1962...

South-East Asian English

South-East Asian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and Vietnam. In the first group, students in English-medium schools were not only taught English but learned other subjects through it; they were expected to use English in the playground, and there were often penalties for using anything else. Such education began with the establishment of the Penang Free School in 1816 and the Singapore Free School in 1823 . English-medium education was the path to better-paid employment and in some cases to higher education leading to the professions. As a consequence, English became a prestige language among the élite....

Prefix

Prefix   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...do not. They usually occur singly ( un - in unhappy, re - in re-write ), but sometimes occur in pairs: un -, re -, in unremarried not married again; anti -, dis -, in antidisestablishment . In these examples, both prefixes are productive (that is, married and establishment are independent base words), but pairing is commonly the addition of a productive to a non-productive prefix: productive in - to non-productive re - in irredeemable (no * deemable ); in - added to con - in inconclusive (no * clusive ). Sometimes, the same prefix may...

Language Change

Language Change   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Changes in pronunciation were a primary interest of 19c comparative philologists who studied the historical relationships among groups of languages such as the Indo-European language family , which includes english ; french ; german ; greek ; latin , and sanskrit . The establishment of regular correspondences among sets of sounds enabled them to reconstruct genetic relationships and the shifts responsible for the present differentiation of languages and dialects : for example, a sound change which shifted /p/ to /f/ in some of the indo-european...

African English

African English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,993 words

...African English (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe, with South Africa as a special case because of its history and ethnic diversity). In the second sense, the term is open to two further interpretations: as either all forms of English since the establishment of trading posts in the 17c, including pidgins and creoles, or only the forms spoken and written by educated Black Africans after some territories were administered by the British (such as Ghana and Nigeria) and/or settled by the British (such as Kenya and Zimbabwe). If the...

American English

American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,936 words

...history of the variety falls into three periods, whose dates correspond to political and social events with important consequences for the language: (1) The Colonial Period , during which a distinctive AmE was gestating. (2) The National Period , which saw its birth, establishment, and consolidation. (3) The International Period , during which it has come increasingly under foreign influence and has exerted influence on other varieties of English and on other languages. The Colonial Period ( 1607–1776 ). English colonization of the Americas came relatively...

Slang

Slang   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,219 words

...and serves much the same purpose. Like stylish clothing and modes of popular entertainment, effective slang must be new, appealing, and able to gain acceptance in a group quickly. Nothing is more damaging to status in the group than using old slang. Counterculture or counter-establishment groups often find a common vocabulary unknown outside the group a useful way to keep information secret or mysterious. Slang is typically cultivated among people in society who have little real political power (like adolescents, college students, and enlisted personnel in the...

China English

China English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,221 words

...and scientific purposes. The literal translation for ‘China English’ is Zhōngguó yīngyǔ in Hanyu pinyin (romanization of Putonghua, officially used in China, Singapore, and Malaysia). Pidgin English Contact between the English and Chinese languages dates from the establishment of a British trading post in 1640 in Guangzhou (Kwangchow, Canton), where pidgin English developed in the 18c. This was a trade jargon of the ports, now known technically as Chinese Pidgin English and China Coast Pidgin . Influenced by an earlier Cantonese Pidgin...

Examining in English

Examining in English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,859 words

...provision of tests by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge of ‘the elements of a plain English education’. Two bodies were set up, the Oxford Delegacy and the Cambridge Syndicate , which remain central to the British tradition of examining by independent bodies. Their establishment lent weight to the existing external examinations of the University of London , administered for its own matriculating purposes. In 1903 the Joint Matriculation Board and in 1953 the Associated Examining Board were added, and the five boards became responsible for...

Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,793 words

...the First World War and it has been the accent favoured for recruits to the Foreign Office and other services representing the British nation (largely drawn from the public schools, with a slight enlargement of the catchment area in recent years). Newcomers to the British establishment have tended to ensure that their children acquire RP by sending them to the ‘right’ schools or, especially in the past in the case of girls, to elocution teachers. In these schools the accent has never been overtly taught, but appears to have been indirectly encouraged and...

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