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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., The A term long used to denote in particular the established church of england , but now a popular designation for the group or class of people who have authority within a society, especially, in Britain, those who control not only the Church of England but the government, the civil service and the armed forces. It has a somewhat derogatory significance associated with reaction, privilege and ‘stuffiness’. By the ‘Establishment’ I do not mean only the centres of official power – though they are certainly part of it – but rather the whole matrix...

Establishment

Establishment   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... . The Establishment (with a capital E ) means ‘the group in society exercising authority or influence, and seen as resisting change’ and, by extension (with a small e ), ‘any influential or controlling group’ as in the literary establishment , the military establishment, the media establishment , and so...

Establishment

Establishment   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
218 words

...e.g. Steve Earle has never really been a member of the Establishment, either socially or professionally — OEC , 2004 . For something like two decades it was a much overused word, but it has long since settled down as a useful description for any loosely defined influential or controlling group, not necessarily political. When it is qualified, it is not usually written with a capital, e.g. the business establishment, the educational establishment, the literary establishment, the media establishment ,...

Establishment, the

Establishment, the   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

..., the a group in a society exercising power and influence over matters of policy or taste, and seen as resisting change. The term is recorded intermittently from the 1920s, but in British English derives its current use from an article by the journalist Henry Fairlie in the Spectator of 1955...

Establishment, the

Establishment, the n. (Aus.)   Reference library

Green's Dictionary of Slang

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
190 words

..., the n. [SE establishment , an institution] ( Aus. ) the Fremantle Gaol. 1857 M.B. Hale Transportation Question 8: The men commit some offence against ticket-of-leave discipline, and are committed again to the Establishment. 1865 ‘ Spiritual correspondent ’ Transportation 32: The men were removed to Fremantle Gaol […] They are not detained long, however, at the ‘establishment’, or ‘college’ as it is termed [AND]. 1872 Mission Life (Perth) 1 Aug. 166: The population consisting mostly of convicts, Goverment officials connected with...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of London Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

..., The An ironically named club founded in 1961 by Peter Cook ( 1937–95 ) and Nicholas Luard ( 1937–2004 ). Based at 18 Greek Street, Soho , the Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-establishment satire boom of that era. It closed in 1964...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...exercised … the ‘Establishment’ can be seen at work in the activities of, not only the Prime Minister, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Earl Marshal, but of such lesser mortals as the Chairman of the Arts Council, the Director-General of the BBC, and even the editor of the Times Literary Supplement , not to mention dignitaries like Lady Violet Bonham Carter . henry fairlie : in The Spectator ( 23 September 1955 ) In the early 1960s, Peter Cook 's ironically named London club The Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-Establishment satire boom of...

Redundancy

Redundancy   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
926 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as one of his choices it would have been more obvious both to the writer and to the editors that the phrasing was redundant.) • “Curtis and Company was a prosperous chemist's shop on Crawford Street, the nearest such to Baker Street; Holmes and I both frequented the establishment on a regular basis .” Barbara Paul , “The Sleuth of Christmas Past,” in Holmes for the Holidays 18, 19 ( Martin H. Greenberg et al. eds., 1996 ). (“To frequent” means to “to visit (a place) often or habitually.”) • “That each creature from microbe to man is unique in...

Contractions

Contractions   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
979 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...moral plane. They’ve just suffered more.” Jonathan Rosen , “The Trivialization of Tragedy,” in Dumbing Down: Essays on the Strip Mining of American Culture 270, 280 ( Katharine Washburn & John F. Thornton eds., 1996 ). • “Weinstein doesn't doubt that the Hollywood establishment wishes him ill, but he doesn't think it's personal.” Ken Auletta , “Beauty and the Beast,” New Yorker , 16 Dec. 2002 , at 81. The common fear is that using contractions can make the writing seem breezy. For most of us, though, that risk is nil. What you gain should be a...

North

North   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by pleading parliamentary privilege. Northeast Passage, The A hoped-for route to the east round the north extremity of Asia. It was first attempted by Sir Hugh Willoughby ( d. c. 1554 ) and Richard Chancellor ( d.1556 ) in 1553–4 , and its only practical result was the establishment of the Muscovy Company ( 1555 ). The passage was traversed by the Swedish explorer Nils Nordenskjöld in 1879 . Northern Bear, The An old nickname for Russia. In political cartoons the former USSR was often depicted as a bear. Northern gate of the sun, The The sign of cancer...

inducement

inducement   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...; induction ; inductance . Inducement ordinarily means “that which induces or persuades.” Induction , in the context of reasoning, means “the establishment of a general proposition from a number of particular instances.” Inductance is a technical electrical...

rapprochement

rapprochement   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...(= the formal establishment of good relations between two countries that have gone through a period of strained relations), though it entered English as a loanword as early as 1809 , has more or less kept its French pronunciation: /rap-rohsh- mah n / , with the accent on the final syllable. Avoid /ra- prohsh -mah n /...

hie

hie   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...City Marathon were at the starting line because of Dr. George Sheehan.” Colman McCarthy , “Running on a Higher Plane,” Wash. Post , 16 Nov. 1993 , at B11. The verb is often reflexive—e.g.: “As they bustle about, sometimes hieing themselves off to unseen corners of their establishment, we meet their clientele.” John Coulbourn , “Less Is More with Two,” Toronto Sun , 27 Nov. 1996 , Entertainment §, at...

lightning

lightning   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Sometimes, however, writers misuse lightening for lightning —e.g.: “After all, given the inroads the group made last year and absent a presidential lightening [read lightning ] rod in the form of Ms. Showalter . . . .” Courtney Leatherman , “From Insurgents to the Establishment,” Chron. of Higher Educ . , 17 Dec. 1999 , at A18. The opposite error rarely if ever occurs. Language-Change Index lightning misspelled lightening : Stage...

epochal

epochal   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
177 words

.... A. And epic , adj. ; ✳epical . Epochal ( / ep -ә-kәl/ ) = marking an epoch, or a new period in chronology. The word should not be used lightly. “Five devastating epochal floods have visited the valley since the establishment of the commission.” (Only if the writer intended to convey that five epochs had passed since the establishment of the commission—an unlikely meaning—would epochal have been correct.) Epic = (1) of, relating to, or involving an epic (i.e., a long heroic narrative); or (2) surpassing what is ordinary or usual. ✳Epical is a ...

Cambridge English

Cambridge English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Cambridge English . A name for English literature as taught at the U. of Cambridge since the establishment in 1912 of the Edward VII Chair of English Literature, whose first incumbent was Arthur Quiller-Couch : ‘Eventually an English Tripos [final honours degree examination] was proposed and agreed to in 1917 , when, it was remarked, many of the dons who might have opposed it were away at the war. The ensuing Golden Age of Cambridge English has been widely commemorated in myth and memoir’ ( Bernard Bergonzi , Exploding English , 1990 ). Major figures...

soi-disant

soi-disant   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
140 words

...= self-proclaimed. This French affectation is inferior both to the translation just given and to self-styled . E.g.: • “What it may need instead is an establishment with the nerve to tell the soi-disant [read self-proclaimed ] victims: Stop kvetching.” Michael S. Greve , “Remote Control Tuning for Speech,” Wash. Times , 9 Nov. 1996 , at D3. • “Our group was my wife, Olivia; my son, Nicholas, the soi-disant [read self-styled ] surfer; [et al.].” Warren Hoge , “Where Wildlife Meets Wild Surf,” N.Y. Times , 16 Feb. 1997 , § 5, at 11....

Plagiarism

Plagiarism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...insofar as educational institutions invite students to model themselves on others, a degree of plagiarism and pastiche are built into the acquiring of creative skills. The concept of plagiarism as a serious legal offence became clear-cut with the growth of printing and the establishment of authors and publishers as people and institutions with property rights. See derivative quotation . ...

Orwell, George

Orwell, George (1903–50)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Orwell, George ( 1903–50 ) . Pen name of Eric Arthur Blair , English novelist, journalist, and political thinker. The adoption in 1933 of the pen name, taken from the River Orwell in East Anglia, marked his transformation from a member of the establishment of the British Empire into a social, political, and literary radical. He was born in Montihari, Bengal, India, the son of a British civil servant, and educated at Eton (where Aldous Huxley was one of his masters). From there he went in 1922 to serve in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, but...

acquiesce

acquiesce   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
280 words

.... . . will go down in history as having acquiesced in our nation's moral decline.” Richard Rorty , “I Don't Need Money from Social Security,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer , 9 Mar. 2000 , at A21. • “Burleigh paints a depressing picture of a society that acquiesced in the establishment of a brutal dictatorship and facilitated the unfolding of its increasingly murderous policies.” Omer Bartov , “Hitler's Willing Believers,” New Republic , 20 Nov. 2000 , at 29. • “Attorney General Thomas F. Reilly . . . has blasted the DTE for acquiescing to utilities...

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