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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Brühlpark

Brühlpark   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Quedlinburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, which is south of the palace, has been part of the gardens of the former religious establishment in Quedlinburg since the 16th century. A convent for ladies of rank ( Damenstift ) was founded at Quedlinburg in ad 936 by Emperor Otto I. Brühl was a very popular leisure spot and it belonged to the St Wipeti monastery until the Reformation. Under the Abbess Anna Dorothea Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar, Brühl was designed on artistic garden principles in 1685 . It included a square courtyard and an axial cross planted...

Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya

Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...had a rather different history from that of adjacent India. Renowned from early times for its spices and economic plants, such as the dye plant gamboge ( Garcinia xanthochymus ), its flora formed the subject of several 18th-century publications, and the British proposed the establishment of a botanic garden on the island as early as 1809 . William Kerr established two gardens between 1812 and 1814 and was succeeded as superintendent and chief gardener by Alexander Moon . After various false starts Moon established the garden at Peradeniya, near Kandy,...

Nikitsky Botanic Garden

Nikitsky Botanic Garden   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...pines, and sequoias planted by Carl Steven. Even older trees include a 500-year-old olive tree and a pistachio tree thought to be 1,000 years old. Roses are represented by almost 2,000 species and varieties. The Nikitsky Botanic Garden has become both a leading research establishment and a major tourist attraction. Peter...

Lindley, John

Lindley, John (1799–1865)   Reference library

Dr Brent Elliott

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

...planting by complementary colours, and to promote an Anglicized nomenclature for plants (among his coinages were ‘conifers’ and ‘orchids’ to replace ‘coniferae’ and ‘orchises’). In 1838 he compiled a report on the condition of the royal gardens at Kew, which led to the establishment of the Royal Botanic Gardens . He developed a private garden at Bedford House, Acton, near the Horticultural Society's garden; after his death this garden was turned into the Bedford Park Garden Suburb, whose roads were planned with dogleg bends to retain as many of his...

Padua Botanic Garden

Padua Botanic Garden   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Botanic Garden Padua, Veneto, Italy. Of the greatest historical and botanical interest the giardino botanico was founded in 1545 , its establishment ratified by a decree of the Venetian Republic. It was the first botanic garden in Europe (except for Pisa founded a few months earlier), and designed as an apothecary's teaching garden for medical students at the university in order that living plants could be studied. Inspired by Daniele Barbaro, the Venetian scholar, its foundation was approved by Francesco Buonafede, doctor and naturalist, holder of the...

Honselaarsdijk

Honselaarsdijk   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...by fashionable designers, including André Mollet , employed 1633–5 to implement some of the first parterres de broderie in the Netherlands. The estate also performed an important political function—it was taken to symbolize a new Rome. This reinforced the age-old establishment and power of the Dutch Republic as a new Batavian stronghold, the emblematic ‘Hortus Batavus’ with the House of Orange as its protector. Little happened to the estate after Frederik Hendrik's death until it became the property of William III in 1672 and after his death in ...

Belvoir Park

Belvoir Park   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

...and the park was intended to be built on to increase the capital. A citizens' campaign managed, however, to purchase the park from the foundation and open it to the public, and in 1901 Zurich City Council took it over. The grounds have been continually altered since their establishment: access to the lakeside had already been blocked by construction of the railway line in the 19th century, around 1.1 hectares/3 acres of the park were sold off as building land, and the first Swiss garden exhibition, G|59, merged the grounds with the neighbouring Schneeligut...

Saharanpur Botanic Garden

Saharanpur Botanic Garden   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...time, and was later ( 1908 ) donated to the Forest School at Dehra Dun. Despite the destruction of most of its trees by troops during the Second World War the garden still exists, reasonably well maintained, but unlabelled and little visited, run as a horticultural research establishment. Henry...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...and a narrowness of roles assigned to government-funded establishments and in the case of Calcutta, the headquarters of the Botanical Survey of India (BSI), trade union difficulties. Accurate identification and labelling is almost unheard of, and the most interesting plants are always, simply from their longevity, the trees—with virtually no herbs or shrubs of botanical interest. Rather than a renaissance of the old establishments, and out of a sense of frustration, this is leading to the establishment of a new generation of botanic gardens fulfilling modern...

Niven, Ninian

Niven, Ninian (1799–1879)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

... National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin ). In 1838 he published The Visitor's Companion to the Botanic Gardens , but in the following year resigned his position to become a professional landscape gardener and nurseryman. After the collapse of one of his earliest projects, the establishment of a national arboretum in Phoenix Park, he went on a tour of French gardens, on his return from which he resolved to practise an intermediate style in which the natural English and formal French styles would be ‘judiciously blended’. His subsequent designs for gardens around...

National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens

National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...gardens, commercial nurseries, schools, and even a zoo. All collections can be visited and are listed on the website www.nccpg.com and in the annual NCCPG National Plant Collections® Directory . All collection holders meet set standards of documentation, reserve plants, establishment, representative coverage, and cultivation set down by NCCPG. There are mechanisms to test applicants against these standards and to monitor the existing collections. To do this the National Office coordinates a network of volunteers who visit the collections. These volunteers...

Middleton Place

Middleton Place   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...of the main garden axis. The pale to deep pink blossoms swim together in waves, their reflection broken in the pond below by the wake of a pair of black swans. Each generation of the Middleton family has made its contribution to this remarkable property; the current being the establishment of a non-profit foundation that has opened the gardens, house, and stableyards to the public as a National Historic Landmark. Hugo...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Second World War Germany's major cities, including their parks and other open spaces, were badly damaged. The establishment of two German states in 1949 , the Federal Republic of Germany (BRD), and the German Democratic Republic (DDR), led to different developments in the two states. While the BRD became integrated politically and economically within Western Europe and North America, the DDR became dependent on the Soviet Union. With the establishment of the first ‘antifascist state on German soil’ in the DDR, former supporters of National Socialism lost their...

nursery

nursery   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...which, through their connections and garden design business, supplied many of the royal gardens and aristocratic estates—a position of power unique in the history of English gardens. The 18th century saw an extraordinary increase in the nursery trade in Britain and the establishment of the first commercial nursery in North America, the Prince Nursery . Robert Prince founded the business, at Flushing on Long Island, as early as 1737 . The nursery became very important both for the dissemination of North American plants to Europe as well as for the...

Denmark

Denmark   Reference library

Annemarie Lund

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

...with Mindelunden in Ryvangen, and C. Th. Sørensen , who established a strong tradition in the 1920s of creating varied, lavishly planted recreational areas with playgrounds and leisure facilities around housing developments. The famous ‘Finger Plan’ from 1947 ensured the establishment of green areas close to Copenhagen, and park directors in the 1930s and 1940s established an outer green belt around Copenhagen. Several landscape architects, such as C. Th. Sørensen , Sven Hansen , and Georg Boye , continued to experiment with geometrical shapes, most...

Thailand

Thailand   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Grand Palace and the courtyards of nearby Wat Po, the Temple of the Reclining Buddha. For many years, Thailand lacked a real botanical garden of the sort established by the British in Singapore and the Dutch in Indonesia. This need was at least partially realized with the establishment of the Queen Sirikit Botanical Gardens outside the northern city of Chiang Mai in the late 1990s, where a wide variety of ornamental and commercial plants, as well as a herbarium, can be seen in a well-landscaped setting. More contemporary international garden designs emerged...

Sweden

Sweden   Reference library

Dr Kjell Lundquist

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...The meadows, multifunctional and aesthetically arranged, became the quintessence of early designed landscape, still existing, and with a rich meadow flora as a by-product. The Middle Ages and the Reformation Medieval garden history ( 1050–1550 ) is intimately linked to the establishment of the monastic system. About twenty Cistercian monasteries were founded during the second part of the 12th century. The gardens of the convent of Saint Birgitta in Vadstena ( 1346 ) were partly laid out by Johan Päterson, commissioned by Birgitta herself. Together with Sister...

New Zealand

New Zealand   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...possibly the most comprehensive collection of woody plants south of the equator. Douglas Cook ( 1884–1967 ) was one of the most knowledgeable plantsmen of his time and imported truckloads of plants to establish his park and garden. Cook was also critically involved in the establishment of Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust (New Plymouth). Eastwoodhill Arboretum is now administered by a trust set up when Cook died. Nearby is Hack Falls Arboretum (Tiniroto), containing over 2,500 taxa, including 200 species of oak, 70 of which are Mexican, many collected in the...

propagation

propagation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...the absence of fertile seed, for example in bananas. A significant penalty of all forms of vegetative propagation is that any diseases and pests afflicting the parent plant are very likely to be present in or on its progeny. Successful vegetative propagation requires the establishment and maintenance of high health standards in parent plants. Division will almost certainly have been the first type of vegetative propagation used by mankind, and remains particularly important for most hardy herbaceous perennials. Nevertheless it is the use of cuttings which...

Royal Horticultural Society

Royal Horticultural Society   Reference library

Dr Brent Elliott

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...that year; a reading room and library for students were set up at Chiswick in 1846 . Since that time the society has continually promoted professional standards and education in gardening, from the setting of practical examinations in horticulture in 1865 , through the establishment in 1893 of the RHS General Examination and in 1913 of the National Diploma in Horticulture, now succeeded by the Master of Horticulture (RHS). It has also set up the Institute of Horticulture as an organization for professional gardeners. The amateur gardener has benefited...

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