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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Tartessian, Turdetan, and Iberian mythology

Tartessian, Turdetan, and Iberian mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...the Romans , Celts , and others made their way to Spain they encountered Tartessians, non– Indo-Europeans who, influenced by Phoenician traders, had, like the Romans, adopted the goddess Astarte and who celebrated Habis, a culture hero who was responsible for the establishment of Tartessian customs. Another non–Indo-European culture in Spain was that of the Turdetans, who also worshipped Astarte. Iberians in Spain developed a cult around the somewhat similar goddess Tanit, a figure with Greek-inspired Artemis-like ...

Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain

Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...meeting held at Primrose Hill, London, to remind the English of their Celtic antecedents. Although the word gorsedd is found in early Welsh texts, e.g. the gorsedd of Arberth , the present celebration of the Gorsedd unquestionably begins with Iolo; he later encouraged the establishment of a gorsedd in each province of Wales. By the mid-19th century, the Gorsedd had become a part of the national Eisteddfod . Membership in the Gorsedd was about 1,300 at the end of the 20th century. A Breton Gorsedd, Gorzez Breizh, was founded in 1901 ; the Cornish, Gorseth...

Conall Gulban

Conall Gulban   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...his two brothers, Eógan and Énna (3) , were, according to T. F. O'Rahilly, identical with the three Collas who razed the Ulster capital of Emain Macha ; see Early Irish History and Mythology (Dublin, 1946 ), 230. On his own Conall headed the Clann Conaill. The establishment of two kingdoms in north-west Ulster, Tír Chonaill by Conall and Tír Eógain [Tyrone] by his brother Eógan , were signal events in early Irish history. According to oral tradition, Conall Gulban gave his name to Ben Bulben [corrupted from Beinn Ghulbain ], Co. Sligo,...

Romulus

Romulus (Europe)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Sabine maidens at a festival. After ruling for forty years Romulus vanished and became the god Quirinus. During the late fourth century bc the Romulus myth first rivalled that of Aeneas as the supposed city founder. The she wolf had been the symbol of nationality since the establishment of the Republic in 510 bc . Although imperial patronage gave to Aeneas the official glory (on the nine hundredth anniversary of the traditional foundation of Rome in 148 , coins were issued which gave pride of place to the city's Trojan origins) interest in Romulus and...

Firbolg

Firbolg   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...some, because, as slaves in distant Thrace, they had been made to carry bags of earth. The Firbolg, who could be representatives of an actual pre-Celtic people in Ireland, are credited with the division of the island into five provinces or coiceds (“fifths”) and with the establishment of a sacred kingship based on the relationship between the king's essential integrity and the land's fertility . The five provinces, which are basic to Irish myth and history, are Ulster in the north, Connacht (Connachta, Connaught) in the west, Munster in the south, and...

Javanese Mythology

Javanese Mythology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Asian Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Mythology With the establishment of Islam ( see Islam ) in Indonesia, the indigenous myths of Java and other areas have been retained as folktales rather than as vehicles for religious truth. The first part of one of these tales, that of the hero Jaka Tarub, is reminiscent of the Indian story of Kṛṣṇa ( see Kṛṣṇa ) and the Gopis ( see Gopis ). One evening Jaka Tarub comes across several beautiful maidens or bidadari (angel-like heavenly spirits) swimming in a pond. As the spirits' winged clothes are on the bank of the pool, Jaka Tarub steals one...

Aislinge Meic Con Glinne

Aislinge Meic Con Glinne   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...the 12th century, it uses the aislinge (but not the conventional form of Irish poetry cited above) to parody Irish institutions; it is known in two versions, one shorter than the other. The text, often compared to the work of Villon, attacks both ecclesiastical and literary establishments as well as abundance in a land of want. The scholar Ainiér Mac Con Glinne, famous for his gifts of satire and eulogy, left his work in Roscommon and travelled to Cork in search of better food. The monastic guest-house he visited in Cork was ill-kept and vermin-ridden. When...

fish falls and frog showers

fish falls and frog showers   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the contents of a pond or other body of water and deposits them at a distance, but this still leaves many questions unanswered. Forteans revel in this type of phenomenon: widely reported, suitably mysterious, on the edge of science but not (yet) accepted by the scientific establishment. We can thus claim fish falls, and related phenomena, as still in the realms of folklore, at least for the time being. Michell and Rickard , 1977: 12–19; Michell and Rickard , 1982: 72–88; N&Q 8s:6 (1894) 104–5, 189–91, 395; 8s:7 (1894), 437,...

Grainger, Percy

Grainger, Percy (1882–1961)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of traditional singing of the Edwardian period. He even persuaded the Gramophone Company to issue recordings of one of his best Lincolnshire singers, Joseph Taylor of Brigg. Grainger's advocacy of the gramophone did not meet with universal approval amongst the folk-song establishment, although several others did experiment with the new technology, but his detailed and complex attempts to annotate the tunes on paper received even less support. In this he was ahead of his time, and his methods later became common place in the field of ethnomusicology. ...

Hone, William

Hone, William (1780–1842)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...William ( 1780–1842 ), Best remembered by historians as an energetic and enthusiastic champion of liberty and equality and a trenchant critic of the political establishment of the day. As journalist, printer, publisher, book, and print-seller, he was involved in numerous campaigns, and was well known for his pamphlets and political squibs. Folklorists, however, remember him for his later works, the four thick volumes of miscellaneous material, commencing with The Every-Day Book . This was a weekly miscellany, launched in January 1825 and continuing to ...

Ordish, Thomas Fairman

Ordish, Thomas Fairman (1855–1924)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Dance at Revesby’, Folk-Lore Journal 7 ( 1889 ), 331–56; ‘Folk Drama’, Folk-Lore 2 ( 1891 ), 314–35; ‘English Folk-Drama II’, Folk-Lore 4 ( 1893 ), 149–75, and a third in this series is to be found in his unpublished papers. Ordish tried to convince the theatre history establishment that their literary bias had led them to err in commencing their account of the development of drama with the medieval miracle and mystery plays. He maintained that the traditional drama which was collected in the 19th century was a direct survival of Anglo-Saxon and Danish...

Ahura Mazdah

Ahura Mazdah (West Asia)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the totality of his message. The Zoroastrianism of the Persian kings accommodated existing religious practices, not least because it was controlled by a priestly caste, the magi , with which it previously had nothing to do. Once the followers of the prophet realized that the establishment on earth of a righteous kingdom was not possible in the present cycle of world ages, the way was open for Persian mythology to evolve a thorough dualism, with the source of evil increasingly personified. At last two absolute rivals emerged: Ahriman, the master of deceit,...

Doomsday

Doomsday   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...asking him how many years were left before the sixth millennium ended ( De Tempore Ratione , cited in Thompson, 1996 : 32). However, there is no evidence of millennial panic in 1000 or 1033. Doomsday is of course inseparable from the concept of the Second Coming and the establishment of a just and godly world. These ideas have strong political implications; they were conspicuous in England during the Civil War and Commonwealth, but after the Restoration lost all prestige ( Thomas , 1971 : 140–6). Doomsday preoccupations periodically recurred at the level...

Lloyd, Albert Lancaster

Lloyd, Albert Lancaster (1908–82)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Post from 1940 to 1950 , and for BBC radio and television from 1938 till just before his death, specializing in drama-documentary programmes. Lloyd was a confirmed Marxist, and this is strongly in evidence in all his work, which did not endear him to the broadcasting establishment of the day, but he was well known and respected in left-wing intellectual circles. Lloyd has encountered traditional songs in his travels, particularly in Australia, and even before the Second World War he had begun to research into the history and morphology of the genre....

Horus

Horus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...Joseph Campbell 's monomyth . Horus was miraculously conceived, and his quest was to restore the “kingdom” of his father in a struggle with monstrous evil represented by his nemesis, Seth . The struggle between Horus and Seth is metaphorically related not only to the establishment of the early dynasties in Egypt and the struggle between north and south, but, in connection with Osiris, to the whole question of the sacred kingship in Egypt. The old king died as Osiris, and the new king reigned as Horus, who had defeated the disorder of Seth. According to...

Indonesian and Malaysian mythology

Indonesian and Malaysian mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

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...his principal wife, Batara Guru took the daughter of the king of the underworld . When his first earthly daughter died, rice was formed from her body, reflecting an Animistic view of reality. Descendants of Batara Guru became the culture heroes of various groups. With the establishment of Islam in Indonesia, the indigenous myths of Java and other areas have been retained as folktales rather than as vehicles for religious truth. The first part of one of these tales, that of the hero Jaka Tarub, is reminiscent of the Indian story of Krishna and the gopis...

Hsien

Hsien (East Asia)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the last of the Shang kings. The vices of the tyrant and his consort—licentious games, excessive drunkenness, and torture–may be no more than garbled and unfriendly accounts of a religious festival to the fertility gods, but as Wu-wang, the hsien Ta-chun is credited with the establishment of rational government. The third of the trinity is Lao-tzu, the original Taoist philosopher. Other notable hsien are the genius of literature, Wen Ch'ang, a brilliant sixth-century scholar, who rose to high office and disappeared suddenly; the adept Li T'ieh-kuai, a strict...

Whitsun ales

Whitsun ales   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the whole range of popular activities—food, drink, sports and games, music, and dancing—and as the Church authorities gradually turned against, first, clerical involvement in the celebrations, and later the festivities themselves, there was an inexorable move towards the establishment of church rates as a more reliable and respectable method of ecclesiastical funding, and church ales slowly disappeared from the scene, to be completely suppressed by the Puritans in the 1640s. After the Restoration, the Church was content to leave matters as they stood, but...

Folk-Song Society

Folk-Song Society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...rather than performance and teaching were the objectives. The first four Vice-Presidents chosen— Sir John Stainer , Sir Alexander Mackenzie , Sir Hubert Parry , and Dr Villiers Stanford —demonstrated the intended standing of the new Society in the respectable musical establishment of the late Victorian era. The Society's annual Journal was launched in 1899 , and for the rest of the Society's existence it served as the major source of raw material for the folk-song movement. A pattern soon evolved which was adhered to for many years. The proof sheets...

God

God   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

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Subject Reference

...succumbed to it. Monotheism, as opposed to monolatry, among the Israelites was not common until the time of the exile in Babylon and the reestablishment of Israel after the exile, that is, not until the sixth century b.c.e. And even then it can be argued that the firm establishment of monotheism in Judaism required the rabbinical or Talmudic process of the first century b.c.e. to the sixth century c.e. Whether one among many or one alone, the god of the Hebrew Bible possessed many familiar Middle Eastern characteristics. He was a storm - weather...

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