View:

Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

soda pop

soda pop   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...term, first recorded in 1863 , for a sweet carbonated drink, as originally made from soda water and flavoured syrup. In everyday use it is generally shortened to soda, which forms the basis of various associated terms, notably soda fountain, denoting a counter or establishment where soda pop, sundaes, and ice cream are dispensed by a soda jerk (a seller of such wares). Vanilla-flavoured soda pop is termed cream soda...

Oreo

Oreo   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...name (invented by the manufacturer) of a type of chocolate biscuit with a white cream filling, originally produced in the US in 1912. In the 1960s it came to be used as a derogatory term for an African American who is seen, especially by other blacks, as part of the white establishment: ‘Trouble is Negroes been programmed by white folks to believe their products are inferior. We’ve developed into a generation of Oreos—black on the outside, white on the inside’, Harper’s Magazine ( 1969...

Beer Halls

Beer Halls   Reference library

Paul Ruschmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Americans, especially the young, quickly took a liking to lager. Beer hall proprietors, many of whom were German, catered to the newfound taste for lager. In some cities they built establishments with high ceilings and filled them with trees and plants in an effort to capture the atmosphere of an outdoor park—even in winter. Although they were roofed and enclosed, these establishments were commonly referred to as “beer gardens.” After the Civil War, there were an estimated three to four thousand beer halls in New York City alone. The largest, such as the...

koumiss

koumiss   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...supply, even in those days of horse-drawn transport, so cow's milk koumiss was made instead, a sovereign remedy for anaemia, phthisis, and ‘catarrhal infections’: ‘The koumiss cure is growing greatly in popularity.…Sometimes patients spend six or seven summers at the koumiss establishments’, Pall Mall Gazette ( 1884...

Club Sandwich

Club Sandwich   Reference library

Becky Mercuri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Springs, New York. The casino's dining room was known for its fine cuisine and for its gambler's buffet, which provided delicious food for those who wanted minimum interruption of their gaming pursuits. By 1896 the club sandwich appeared on the menus of such New York City establishments as the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel and the Windsor Hotel. The club sandwich remains a ubiquitous item on restaurant luncheon menus. [ See also Sandwiches .] Bibliography Mercuri, Becky . Sandwiches That You Will Like . Pittsburgh, Pa.: WQED Multimedia, 2002. Rorer, Sarah Tyson . ...

Cummings, Richard Osborn

Cummings, Richard Osborn (1908–1973)   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...It was republished by Arno Press in 1970 . The book had a major influence on the National Nutrition Conference for Defense at the beginning of World War II. This group put forward the idea of “recommending the establishment of the allowances for good nutrition as a national goal.” In short, this book contributed to the establishment of the Recommended Dietary Allowance, which evolved into today's Dietary Reference Intakes. In the early 1940s Richard Cummings worked with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He...

Harvey, Fred

Harvey, Fred (1835–1901)   Reference library

James D. Porterfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...trains in 1888 , Harvey negotiated to staff and provision those eating establishments as well. When the AT&SF acquired rail access to the rim of the Grand Canyon, Harvey created, in 1903 , the recreational and boarding accommodations there. His firm eventually also established corporate and public eating establishments that stretched from Cleveland, Ohio, to Los Angeles, California. Harvey's contributions to American culinary history are of a pioneering nature. His establishments and his reputation for quality played a critical role in attracting riders...

Coffeehouses

Coffeehouses   Reference library

Mark Pendergrast

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Beginning with the kaveh kanes , as fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Arab establishments were known, coffeehouses have provided a place for people to socialize over a cup of coffee and a bite to eat. The coffeehouse combined with café has a longer European pedigree, but the American Revolution was planned in Boston's Green Tavern, a coffeehouse that also served ale. In the 1950s smoky, atmospheric coffeehouses in cities such as San Francisco and New York fueled hipsters and beatniks. In the Vietnam War era, GI coffeehouses outside army bases...

chip

chip   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in fast-food outlets (in the late 1980s Buxted changed the name of their ready-meal ‘Chicken and Chips’ to ‘Chicken and Fries’). Meanwhile a minor outflanking move on British usage has been made by French pommes frites , or their abbreviation frites , in upmarket establishments where the chip would be infra dig ( see also pont-neuf potatoes ). To complicate matters further, in Australian English chips are crisps, and chips are hot chips . In Indian English chips are known as finger chips. See also oven chip . The chip's main role...

Beer Gardens

Beer Gardens   Reference library

Paul Ruschmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and lavish nighttime light displays. Beer gardens such as the Schlitz Palm Gardens and Pabst Park, both in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, are considered the forerunners of theme parks. In some cities with large German populations, especially New York, huge, park-like indoor establishments were built that offered lager beer and live entertainment year round. As a result, the term “beer garden” came to be interchangeable with “beer hall.” Outdoor beer gardens offering traditional food and entertainment are found in a number of communities with German American...

Oyster Bars

Oyster Bars   Reference library

Joan Reardon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in the history of American restaurants. As early as 1763 a cellar on Broad Street in New York City featured oysters on the half shell, as did a handful of other basement saloons, which were occasionally called parlors or bars. As time passed and the number of these establishments grew, they were recognized by certain distinctive features. A balloon of red muslin, which could be illuminated at night by a candle within, beckoned the oyster aficionado down a short flight of steps. In the nineteenth century these 25- by Eating Oysters.  Oyster stands in...

Taco Bell

Taco Bell   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...establishment. Like the McDonald brothers, Bell quickly opened more restaurants in the surrounding area. Bell sold his interest in Taco Tia and with new partners launched another chain, El Taco. The first outlet was opened in 1958 in Long Beach, California. In 1962 Bell sold his share in El Taco to his partners and opened the first Taco Bell in Downey, California. The menu consisted mainly of tacos and burritos plus beverages. This small outlet was quickly followed by eight stores in the Long Beach, Paramount, and Los Angeles areas. These establishments...

claret

claret   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...varieties which produce a range of fairly undistinguished wines, mainly white (the best, and best-known, is Clairette de Die , a usually sparkling wine made in the Rhône valley). And a wine called clairet , pale red verging on rosé, is still made in Bordeaux. Claret 's establishment in English as unequivocally a word for ‘red wine’ is confirmed by its metaphorical use for ‘blood’, particularly as drawn by fisticuffs; the usage now has a very dated air, conjuring up the bare-knuckle fights of the eighteenth century, but it dates back to the early...

Reuben Sandwich

Reuben Sandwich   Reference library

Becky Mercuri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...put it on the menu. In 1956 a former waitress at the Blackstone Hotel named Fern Snider entered the recipe in a national sandwich competition and won. Finally, it is said that the Reuben was created in 1937 at the Cornhusker Hotel in Lincoln, Nebraska. A menu from that establishment, listing the proper ingredients and dated the same year, has been submitted as proof. To date, this menu is the only evidence that has surfaced to substantiate any of the three claims. The Reuben sandwich is a standard offering on delicatessen and restaurant menus throughout...

Sarsaparilla

Sarsaparilla   Reference library

Ruth Tobias

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Increasingly, however, flavors such as sassafras, licorice, and wintergreen were employed to soften the bitterness of sarsaparilla until finally, all that was left was the name; and in the twentieth century that, too, disappeared; perhaps not coincidentally, as the medical establishment began mounting challenges to sarsaparilla's therapeutic reputation. [ See also Homemade Remedies ; Root Beer ; Sassafrasses ; Soda Drinks ; Soda Fountains .] Bibliography Funderburg, Anne Cooper . Sundae Best: A History of Soda Fountains . Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling...

Sloppy Joe

Sloppy Joe   Reference library

Becky Mercuri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...popularity of the sandwich. As for the name “sloppy joe,” some say it was inspired by one of two famous bars named Sloppy Joe's in the 1930s—one in Havana, Cuba, and the other in Key West, Florida. The name caught on throughout the United States, and based on the number of establishments that subsequently became known as “Sloppy Joe's” by the late 1930s, it is likely that the messy-to-eat sandwich was named after restaurants that commonly served it. By 1948 , the sloppy joe was firmly established in America's sandwich culture. [ See also Sandwiches .]...

Grog

Grog   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...as arrack, were frequently substituted for the rum in grog, and sometimes other ingredients, such as sugar and lime, were added. Grogshops had sprung up in American ports before the Revolutionary War. They were frequented by sailors and were considered among the most unsavory establishments in American cities. As the price of whiskey declined during the nineteenth century, it was often substituted for rum. Grogshop owners sometimes adulterated the whiskey in the grog with logwood (a dye), berries, tobacco, and strychnine. Raw eggs were also occasionally added to...

Lüchow's

Lüchow's   Reference library

Bonnie J. Slotnick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Henry , H. L. Mencken , Theodore Dreiser, Lillian Russell, John Barrymore, Enrico Caruso, Richard Strauss, and Victor Herbert, who for four years led the resident string ensemble in Viennese favorites. Even when the beer stopped flowing—Prohibition spelled the end for many establishments—Lüchow's hung on. The day Prohibition was repealed, one thousand guests came to quaff seidels of Würzburger. Lüchow's was founded by August Guido Lüchow, who came to New York from Hanover, Germany, in 1879 . Within a few years he had bought the beer hall at 110 East...

Cafeterias

Cafeterias   Reference library

Ruth Tobias

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...rise to a crop of upscale establishments that paid cheeky homage to their stodgier counterparts by serving gussied-up versions of mac-and-cheese, country-fried steak, and other humble fare—some of them even named Cafeteria (as in New York, Boston, and Miami). Cafeteria chains have also flourished, beginning with the Childs brothers’ New York–based operations at the turn of the century and eventually migrating south and west. In fact, while the original urban model has all but disappeared in the shuffle of fast food establishments, its roadside offspring have...

Calorie Posting in Chain Restaurants

Calorie Posting in Chain Restaurants   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the number of calories people consumed, especially when a reference was included to the recommended intake of 2,000 calories per day. In 2006 , New York City passed a law that required nutrition information to be included on menus of restaurant chains with more than fifteen establishments, but thanks to strong opposition from the New York Restaurant Association, the law did not go into effect until 2008 . California, Maine, and Oregon later passed similar legislation, as did many cities and communities around the country. A number of these laws required a...

View: