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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

soda pop

soda pop   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...term, first recorded in 1863 , for a sweet carbonated drink, as originally made from soda water and flavoured syrup. In everyday use it is generally shortened to soda, which forms the basis of various associated terms, notably soda fountain, denoting a counter or establishment where soda pop, sundaes, and ice cream are dispensed by a soda jerk (a seller of such wares). Vanilla-flavoured soda pop is termed cream soda...

Oreo

Oreo   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...name (invented by the manufacturer) of a type of chocolate biscuit with a white cream filling, originally produced in the US in 1912. In the 1960s it came to be used as a derogatory term for an African American who is seen, especially by other blacks, as part of the white establishment: ‘Trouble is Negroes been programmed by white folks to believe their products are inferior. We’ve developed into a generation of Oreos—black on the outside, white on the inside’, Harper’s Magazine ( 1969...

Tartessian, Turdetan, and Iberian mythology

Tartessian, Turdetan, and Iberian mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...the Romans , Celts , and others made their way to Spain they encountered Tartessians, non– Indo-Europeans who, influenced by Phoenician traders, had, like the Romans, adopted the goddess Astarte and who celebrated Habis, a culture hero who was responsible for the establishment of Tartessian customs. Another non–Indo-European culture in Spain was that of the Turdetans, who also worshipped Astarte. Iberians in Spain developed a cult around the somewhat similar goddess Tanit, a figure with Greek-inspired Artemis-like ...

Beer Halls

Beer Halls   Reference library

Paul Ruschmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Americans, especially the young, quickly took a liking to lager. Beer hall proprietors, many of whom were German, catered to the newfound taste for lager. In some cities they built establishments with high ceilings and filled them with trees and plants in an effort to capture the atmosphere of an outdoor park—even in winter. Although they were roofed and enclosed, these establishments were commonly referred to as “beer gardens.” After the Civil War, there were an estimated three to four thousand beer halls in New York City alone. The largest, such as the...

koumiss

koumiss   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...supply, even in those days of horse-drawn transport, so cow's milk koumiss was made instead, a sovereign remedy for anaemia, phthisis, and ‘catarrhal infections’: ‘The koumiss cure is growing greatly in popularity.…Sometimes patients spend six or seven summers at the koumiss establishments’, Pall Mall Gazette ( 1884...

Club Sandwich

Club Sandwich   Reference library

Becky Mercuri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Springs, New York. The casino's dining room was known for its fine cuisine and for its gambler's buffet, which provided delicious food for those who wanted minimum interruption of their gaming pursuits. By 1896 the club sandwich appeared on the menus of such New York City establishments as the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel and the Windsor Hotel. The club sandwich remains a ubiquitous item on restaurant luncheon menus. [ See also Sandwiches .] Bibliography Mercuri, Becky . Sandwiches That You Will Like . Pittsburgh, Pa.: WQED Multimedia, 2002. Rorer, Sarah Tyson . ...

Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain

Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...meeting held at Primrose Hill, London, to remind the English of their Celtic antecedents. Although the word gorsedd is found in early Welsh texts, e.g. the gorsedd of Arberth , the present celebration of the Gorsedd unquestionably begins with Iolo; he later encouraged the establishment of a gorsedd in each province of Wales. By the mid-19th century, the Gorsedd had become a part of the national Eisteddfod . Membership in the Gorsedd was about 1,300 at the end of the 20th century. A Breton Gorsedd, Gorzez Breizh, was founded in 1901 ; the Cornish, Gorseth...

Conall Gulban

Conall Gulban   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...his two brothers, Eógan and Énna (3) , were, according to T. F. O'Rahilly, identical with the three Collas who razed the Ulster capital of Emain Macha ; see Early Irish History and Mythology (Dublin, 1946 ), 230. On his own Conall headed the Clann Conaill. The establishment of two kingdoms in north-west Ulster, Tír Chonaill by Conall and Tír Eógain [Tyrone] by his brother Eógan , were signal events in early Irish history. According to oral tradition, Conall Gulban gave his name to Ben Bulben [corrupted from Beinn Ghulbain ], Co. Sligo,...

Cummings, Richard Osborn

Cummings, Richard Osborn (1908–1973)   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...It was republished by Arno Press in 1970 . The book had a major influence on the National Nutrition Conference for Defense at the beginning of World War II. This group put forward the idea of “recommending the establishment of the allowances for good nutrition as a national goal.” In short, this book contributed to the establishment of the Recommended Dietary Allowance, which evolved into today's Dietary Reference Intakes. In the early 1940s Richard Cummings worked with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He...

Brühlpark

Brühlpark   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Quedlinburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, which is south of the palace, has been part of the gardens of the former religious establishment in Quedlinburg since the 16th century. A convent for ladies of rank ( Damenstift ) was founded at Quedlinburg in ad 936 by Emperor Otto I. Brühl was a very popular leisure spot and it belonged to the St Wipeti monastery until the Reformation. Under the Abbess Anna Dorothea Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar, Brühl was designed on artistic garden principles in 1685 . It included a square courtyard and an axial cross planted...

Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya

Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...had a rather different history from that of adjacent India. Renowned from early times for its spices and economic plants, such as the dye plant gamboge ( Garcinia xanthochymus ), its flora formed the subject of several 18th-century publications, and the British proposed the establishment of a botanic garden on the island as early as 1809 . William Kerr established two gardens between 1812 and 1814 and was succeeded as superintendent and chief gardener by Alexander Moon . After various false starts Moon established the garden at Peradeniya, near Kandy,...

Harvey, Fred

Harvey, Fred (1835–1901)   Reference library

James D. Porterfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...trains in 1888 , Harvey negotiated to staff and provision those eating establishments as well. When the AT&SF acquired rail access to the rim of the Grand Canyon, Harvey created, in 1903 , the recreational and boarding accommodations there. His firm eventually also established corporate and public eating establishments that stretched from Cleveland, Ohio, to Los Angeles, California. Harvey's contributions to American culinary history are of a pioneering nature. His establishments and his reputation for quality played a critical role in attracting riders...

Coffeehouses

Coffeehouses   Reference library

Mark Pendergrast

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Beginning with the kaveh kanes , as fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Arab establishments were known, coffeehouses have provided a place for people to socialize over a cup of coffee and a bite to eat. The coffeehouse combined with café has a longer European pedigree, but the American Revolution was planned in Boston's Green Tavern, a coffeehouse that also served ale. In the 1950s smoky, atmospheric coffeehouses in cities such as San Francisco and New York fueled hipsters and beatniks. In the Vietnam War era, GI coffeehouses outside army bases...

Romulus

Romulus (Europe)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Sabine maidens at a festival. After ruling for forty years Romulus vanished and became the god Quirinus. During the late fourth century bc the Romulus myth first rivalled that of Aeneas as the supposed city founder. The she wolf had been the symbol of nationality since the establishment of the Republic in 510 bc . Although imperial patronage gave to Aeneas the official glory (on the nine hundredth anniversary of the traditional foundation of Rome in 148 , coins were issued which gave pride of place to the city's Trojan origins) interest in Romulus and...

Nikitsky Botanic Garden

Nikitsky Botanic Garden   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...pines, and sequoias planted by Carl Steven. Even older trees include a 500-year-old olive tree and a pistachio tree thought to be 1,000 years old. Roses are represented by almost 2,000 species and varieties. The Nikitsky Botanic Garden has become both a leading research establishment and a major tourist attraction. Peter...

Lindley, John

Lindley, John (1799–1865)   Reference library

Dr Brent Elliott

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...planting by complementary colours, and to promote an Anglicized nomenclature for plants (among his coinages were ‘conifers’ and ‘orchids’ to replace ‘coniferae’ and ‘orchises’). In 1838 he compiled a report on the condition of the royal gardens at Kew, which led to the establishment of the Royal Botanic Gardens . He developed a private garden at Bedford House, Acton, near the Horticultural Society's garden; after his death this garden was turned into the Bedford Park Garden Suburb, whose roads were planned with dogleg bends to retain as many of his...

Firbolg

Firbolg   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...some, because, as slaves in distant Thrace, they had been made to carry bags of earth. The Firbolg, who could be representatives of an actual pre-Celtic people in Ireland, are credited with the division of the island into five provinces or coiceds (“fifths”) and with the establishment of a sacred kingship based on the relationship between the king's essential integrity and the land's fertility . The five provinces, which are basic to Irish myth and history, are Ulster in the north, Connacht (Connachta, Connaught) in the west, Munster in the south, and...

Javanese Mythology

Javanese Mythology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Asian Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Mythology With the establishment of Islam ( see Islam ) in Indonesia, the indigenous myths of Java and other areas have been retained as folktales rather than as vehicles for religious truth. The first part of one of these tales, that of the hero Jaka Tarub, is reminiscent of the Indian story of Kṛṣṇa ( see Kṛṣṇa ) and the Gopis ( see Gopis ). One evening Jaka Tarub comes across several beautiful maidens or bidadari (angel-like heavenly spirits) swimming in a pond. As the spirits' winged clothes are on the bank of the pool, Jaka Tarub steals one...

chip

chip   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in fast-food outlets (in the late 1980s Buxted changed the name of their ready-meal ‘Chicken and Chips’ to ‘Chicken and Fries’). Meanwhile a minor outflanking move on British usage has been made by French pommes frites , or their abbreviation frites , in upmarket establishments where the chip would be infra dig ( see also pont-neuf potatoes ). To complicate matters further, in Australian English chips are crisps, and chips are hot chips . In Indian English chips are known as finger chips. See also oven chip . The chip's main role...

Beer Gardens

Beer Gardens   Reference library

Paul Ruschmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and lavish nighttime light displays. Beer gardens such as the Schlitz Palm Gardens and Pabst Park, both in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, are considered the forerunners of theme parks. In some cities with large German populations, especially New York, huge, park-like indoor establishments were built that offered lager beer and live entertainment year round. As a result, the term “beer garden” came to be interchangeable with “beer hall.” Outdoor beer gardens offering traditional food and entertainment are found in a number of communities with German American...

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