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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Establishment

Establishment   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
391 words

... . In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the civil order, but the first move towards the establishment of the Christian Church dates from the time of Constantine ( d. 337 ); he not only granted toleration to Christianity, but he gave the Church a favoured position in the Empire and exercised considerable control over its affairs. After the Reformation the RC Church remained the established religion in much...

Establishment

Establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,196 words

...to that of the Pope, and of equally Divine origin. The establishment of national Churches completely rejecting the authority of the Pope, while asserting their continuity with the primitive Church, involved some adjustments; these normally included financial support for the established Church by the state and more direct control over appointments and other matters. By the 18th cent., however, the whole idea of established Churches was being challenged. The American constitution forbade an establishment of religion, on grounds of principle. In Ireland and ...

Establishment

Establishment  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the civil order, ...
tamnan

tamnan   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...and Buddhist literary traditions, and written in Lānnā Thai, Mon, or Pāli; this genre flourished in the Lānnā kingdom between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries. A tamnan generally begins with events in the life of Gotama ( S. Gautama ) Buddha and continues on to the establishment of the dispensation ( P. sāsanā ; S. śāsana ) at a specific location. Notable tamnan include the Cāmadevīvaṃsa , the Jinakālamālī , and the Mūlasāsana...

fachuang

fachuang (J.)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... pŏptang 法幢 ‎ ). In Chinese, “banner of dharma”; in its literal usage, this term refers to the banners that would be raised whenever dharma sermons, rituals, or festivals were held. By extension, the opening or founding of a monastery or lecture hall came to be called the “establishment of the dharma banner” (ji’an fachuang). Metaphorically, the proclamation or exposition of the Buddhist truths was also said to be like raising the dharma banner, which would terrify Māra ’s legions, thus symbolizing the vanquishing of Buddhism’s ideological...

Saṅgītivaṃsa

Saṅgītivaṃsa   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...followed by an account of councils four through eight in Sri Lanka, and concludes with the ninth Buddhist council (see Council, Ninth ) held in Bangkok under King Rāma I in 1788–1789 . The work contains much information on the religion and polity of Thailand through the establishment of the Cakri dynasty ( 1782-present...

anxin

anxin (J.)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...thereby calming or “pacifying” the mind. According to the Erru sixing lun attributed to the founder of Chan, Bodhidharma , the result of such cultivation is said to be an immovable state of mind. In the pure land traditions, the “pacification of mind” refers to the firm establishment of a sense of faith in the teachings of the buddhas and the patriarchs ( zushi...

pratiṣṭhā

pratiṣṭhā (P.)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...pratiṣṭhā . ( P. patiṭṭhā ; T. rab tu gnas pa ; C. jianli ; J. konryū ; K. kŏllip 建立 ‎ ). In Sanskrit, lit. “establishment,” or “installation,” but often having the sense of “consecration,” especially of a monastery, temple, or buddha-image. There are numerous forms of consecration ceremonies across the Buddhist world. In the case of the consecration of buddha images, these ceremonies seek to cause the buddha to “enter” into his physical representation. In some cases, this consecration is done by reciting the life story of the Buddha in the...

Bao’ensi

Bao’ensi   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...of a monastery called Jianchusi (First Built Monastery), where he installed a legendary Aśoka stūpa to enshrine that relic. The monastery went through several renovations and relocations during the successive dynasties that had suzerainty over the region. The establishment of the Ming dynasty’s capital in the nearby city of Nanjing helped the monastery regain imperial patronage. In 1412 , the Yongle emperor of the Ming dynasty began repairs on the monastery in commemoration of his wife’s death and renamed it Bao’ensi. He also ordered the...

vaṃsa

vaṃsa   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...vaṃsa . In Pāli, lit. “lineage,” but generally referring to a semi-historical “chronicle”; an important genre of Pāli literature that typically recounts the life of the Buddha, the establishment of the saṅgha ( S. saṃgha ), and the first Buddhist council ( saṃgīti ; see Council, First ) after the Buddha’s death. Depending upon the particular purpose of the chronicle, the work will then go on to describe such things as the transmission of the dharma to a particular place, the founding of a monastery, the tracing of a monastic lineage back to the first...

Sba bzhed

Sba bzhed   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Sba Gsal snang (Ba Salnang, c. late-eighth century)—a leading member of the Sba (Ba) clan and abbot of Bsam yas monastery during the years leading up to the Bsam yas debate . The text thus discusses the founding of Bsam yas, the debate, and other events surrounding the establishment of Buddhism during the period. It contains the earliest reference to Padmasambhava , describing him as a water diviner. Modern scholarship tends to date the complete version of the work to the twelfth or even fourteenth century, although there are extant fragments that are...

Dga’ ldan phun tshogs gling

Dga’ ldan phun tshogs gling   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...tshogs gling . He hired artists from Nepal to decorate it, eventually making it the most lavishly appointed monastery in central Tibet. Under Tāranātha, it became the primary seat of the Jo nang sect. After his death, the monastery was forcibly converted to a Dge lugs establishment by order of the fifth Dalai Lama , who opposed the Jo nang and is said to have had a personal animosity against Tāranātha. The monastery was thus renamed Dga’ ldan phun tshogs gling and the printing of the Jo nang texts held there was banned; permission to print them was not...

Daozhe Chaoyuan

Daozhe Chaoyuan (J.)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...), Egoku Dōmyō, Chōon Dōkai ( 1628–1695 ), and Bankei Yōtaku . Unlike his compatriot Yinyuan, who continued to reside in Japan, Daozhe returned to China in 1658 and died shortly thereafter. Daozhe played an important role in preparing the ground for Yinyuan’s later establishment of the Ōbakushū in...

’Bri gung mthil

’Bri gung mthil   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...there, deriving its name (literally “back of a female yak”) from the contour of the surrounding ridge. The institution was renowned for its excellence in meditative training and gained great political power during the thirteenth century when it rivaled even the Sa skya establishment. ’Bri gung mthil was sacked by the Mongol-backed Sa skyas in 1290 but was rebuilt and later flourished as an active, though politically insignificant, religious center for the ’Bri gung bka’ brgyud teachings. One of central Tibet’s most famous sky-burial sites is affiliated...

jieshe

jieshe (J.)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...especially in the south. These societies were typically involved in Tiantai , Huayan , and pure land practice, though some were dedicated to the worship of a specific bodhisattva , such as Samantabhadra . These societies were typically founded outside the ecclesiastical establishment and, by encouraging both lay and ordained adepts to train together, they fostered some measure of religious egalitarianism within East Asian Buddhism. The jieshe movement was especially influential in Koryŏ-dynasty Korea, where some fourteen separate kyŏlsa sites are mentioned...

Mitchell, J. Murray

Mitchell, J. Murray (1815)   Reference library

Atul Y. Aghamkar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...was the translation of Marathi saint literature into English. Mitchell's versatile nature was productively used by the mission beyond western India. He assisted Stephen Hislop * in the establishment of the ‘Central India Mission’ at Nagpur. He also surveyed the prospects of initiating missionary work in the Nizam's territory, ultimately resulting in the establishment of the ‘Jalna Mission’. He was also instrumental in the opening of the Rajputana mission in partnership with the United Presbyterian Mission and helped his own church on that of the Santal...

Buchanan, Claudius

Buchanan, Claudius (1766)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...reformer and Member of Parliament, were leading voices for the establishment of an Anglican episcopate in India and freedom for missionary outreach outside the control of the East India Company. A prolific writer, Buchanan wrote a number of books and essays. In recognition of his services, he received two Doctor of Divinity degrees: one from the University of Glasgow and another from the University of Cambridge. Buchanan, C. (1805), Memoir of the Expediency of an Ecclesiastical Establishment for British India; Both as a Means of Perpetuating the Christian...

Democratization

Democratization   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,513 words

...too disconnected from their body-politic to wrest power from the ruling establishments. Nonviolent Islamist movements—which in semiauthoritarian settings have fashioned a strategic commitment to peaceful participation in politics and developed stable electoral constituencies—have been unable to compel autocrats to open the way for representative government. And while Islamists have been facing sporadic repression by the regimes in countries such as Egypt and Jordan, ruling establishments in Morocco and Yemen, for example, have successfully employed various...

sōjō

sōjō   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...(office of monastic affairs) to supervise national ecclesiastical affairs. The sōjō was later divided into three sub-positions, each of which was appointed by the government on the recommendation of the Buddhist order. In the early-Heian period, monks from the Nara Buddhist establishment ( see Nara Buddhism, Six Schools of ) dominated the sōjō positions. By the middle of the ninth century, however, monks from the Tendaishū and Shingonshū schools held most of the appointments, and during the Kamakura period, Zen and pure land monks also were appointed...

Asuka

Asuka   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...the Buddha from the King Sŏngmyŏng of the Korean kingdom of Paekche in 552 (var. 538). Buddhism became the central religion of the Asuka court with the support of such famous figures as Prince Shōtoku , Empress Suiko (r. 593–628 ), and Empress Jitō (r. 686–697 ). After the establishment of the grand monastery Asukadera by the descendants of a Korean clan, other temples modeled after early Chinese monastery campuses, such as Hōryūji , were also constructed during this period. These temples enshrined the magnificent sculptures executed by Tori...

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