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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

ESSON, Henry

ESSON, Henry (1793–1853)   Reference library

Charles A. Hobbs and John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to more closely unite with the Church of Scotland. Unable to obtain financial support from Scotland, they petitioned without success for recognition as an established church in Canada alongside the Church of England. This struggle and others involving Esson did encourage the establishment of the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland in 1831 . Relations with the Church of Scotland continued to be unstable; by 1843–44 the disrupting schism within Presbyterianism in Scotland and Canada again engaged Esson, who...

National Endowment For the Arts

National Endowment For the Arts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,027 words

...it constitutes the establishment of religion, which is itself prohibited by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.”) Prayer led by a principal in a public school would violate the establishment clause; a school policy prohibiting the principal from leading such prayers would not violate the right of free speech. In challenging the Wojnarowicz exhibit, plaintiffs argued that the exhibit was critical of their Christian beliefs and thus violated the establishment clause. The plaintiffs...

doubting

doubting   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
349 words

...is open to doubt; and, finally, there may be a malicious all-powerful demon who is bent on deceiving us, and so ‘the earth, sky, and all external things’ may be merely delusions. Cartesian doubt is not, however, an end in itself, but it is designed to clear the way for the establishment of a secure system of knowledge built on indubitable foundations. The questioning of accepted beliefs and preconceived opinions can be a valuable exercise both in philosophy and in science generally ( see common sense ). It seems, however, that to insist on indubitability as...

Lagos Plan of Action

Lagos Plan of Action   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

.... Since global development strategies seemed to have failed, the LPA was therefore meant to be a homegrown panacea for continental Africa, with a focus on collective self-reliance and self-sustenance in regional and subregional development. A basic ideal of the LPA was the establishment of grounds for development and economic growth that were both self-sustaining and durable. It was the hope of the LPA that by the year 2000 , Africa would have established an African Economic Community. Further, the Lagos plan recognized the food problems of Africa and...

Mboya, Tom

Mboya, Tom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,006 words

...the vast differences in the living conditions between Europeans and Africans and the racial divide evident, for example, in that some Europeans would not allow African employees of the council to inspect their premises. The opportunity for active engagement with the colonial establishment then emerged with Mboya’s joining the Nairobi African Local Government Servants’ Association (NALGSA), in which he rose to the position of vice president. Mboya increasingly was concerned about political developments in Kenya, and when in 1952 a state of emergency was...

neurolinguistics

neurolinguistics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
490 words

..., Jakobson 1956 ), the term neurolinguistics and more systematic application of linguistic ideas have only become widespread since 1970 . In 1969 , the neurologist Henri Hécaen and the linguist Armand Dubois declared the object of neurolinguistics to be, first, the establishment of ‘a purely linguistic typology’ of neurologically caused verbal disorders, and, second, the achievement of an experimentally verifiable correlation of lesion sites with the linguistic types. In practice, however, it has proved difficult to use solely linguistic criteria of...

CHURCH, Alonzo

CHURCH, Alonzo (1793–1862)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...economics class. Church’s demand that all faculty help maintain the strictest level of student discipline, in an era when professors began regarding themselves as primarily scholars, made faculty retention difficult. Facing a mandatory university reorganization and the establishment of new professional schools, Church retired in 1859 . He was succeeded in the office of President by Andrew Lipscomb , and Patrick Hues Mell became professor of metaphysics and ethics. Church died near Athens, Georgia on 18 May 1862 . Bibliography A discourse delivered...

WHITE, Charles

WHITE, Charles (1795–1861)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the World,” and “Literary Responsibilities of Teachers.” White staunchly defended the importance of classical and religious education. He wrote, “These three services for the west, the creation of eminent scholarship, the improvement and extension of primary education, the establishment of a superior and Christian civilization, constitute the grand design and effort of western colleges” ( 1853 , 224). Bibliography Essays in Literature and Ethics (Boston, 1853). Other Relevant Works White’s papers are at Wabash College in Indiana . Further Reading Appleton’s...

Walter, William Grey

Walter, William Grey (1910–76)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
594 words

...work on evoked potentials for the rest of that decade was tragically halted in 1970 by a severe head injury from which he never fully recovered. Grey Walter was a pioneer and an intellectual leader of world renown, but he was never fully accepted by the British scientific establishment. He wrote some 200 research papers and a uniquely stimulating book, The Living Brain ( 1953 ), which attracted many students to follow in his footsteps. (Published 1987) Ray...

FINLEY, William

FINLEY, William (1803–1876)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and Finley was able to recruit Agassiz to lecture at the college in the early 1850s. In 1850 the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science was held in Charleston. At Agassiz’s urging, this enthusiasm for science soon resulted in the establishment of a natural history society and a museum in Charleston. During the late 1840s and the 1850s, the College of Charleston was the finest institution of higher learning in America located south of Philadelphia. The destiny of the college would be determined by political forces...

mesmerism

mesmerism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,045 words

...a few grateful patients. Indeed his colourful personality and robust self-confidence created a distinct stir, first in court circles in imperial Vienna and later in the fashionable salons of pre-revolutionary Paris. Inevitably, perhaps, he incurred the odium of the medical establishment, and the French government was eventually led to appoint a royal commission to conduct an enquiry into animal magnetism under the chairmanship of Benjamin Franklin . Among its members were Lavoisier , the famous chemist, and Guillotin , who gave his name to the instrument...

LADD, William

LADD, William (1778–1841)   Reference library

Michael Ziser

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... illustrates, he always retained his pragmatic orientation to the problem of organizing against violence. By virtue of his 1831 pamphlet calling for the establishment of a Congress of Nations and a Court of Nations, Ladd became a leader of the movement to provide international bodies for the settlement of disputes between countries. Support for such plans was high in New England, where the establishment still grumbled about the disruptions caused by the War of 1812 , and the farcical Aroostook War of the late 1830s made clear the mischief that could thrive...

CRAWFORD, John

CRAWFORD, John (1746–1813)   Reference library

Richard J. Behles

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...textbooks. Frequently acknowledging Francis Bacon , Crawford advanced a neo-classic approach in interpreting the causes of disease. Keeping the Creator ever before his eyes, Crawford cited the courses of nature and its creatures as the foundation of all truth. The medical establishment’s contemporary reliance upon conjecture necessarily was erroneous without a thorough and responsible observation of the natural order. Crawford’s view of disease as a process intimately connected to the life cycles of the living flora and fauna around him was firmly rooted in...

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin (1805–1899)   Reference library

David E. Pfeifer and John Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...botany, scientific agriculture, and the promotion of public schooling. By 1850 he was advocating a publicly funded system of “industrial” or vocational education suited for the needs of the working classes. Turner became deeply involved in this growing movement towards the establishment of land grant colleges. Although U.S. Congressman Justin Morrill never publicly stated that Turner’s ideas and activism were behind the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act which established land-grant universities, the historical record clearly shows how Turner was a...

Herskovits, Melville Jean

Herskovits, Melville Jean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,350 words

...including black and white liberal scholars who argued that black American culture was a pathological version of white culture with little or no African influence. At a time when most white Americans assumed black Americans to be inferior as a race and a culture, Herskovits’s establishment of the strength and complexity of African and African-influenced cultures was an important intellectual achievement. Herskovits’s research on black cultures showed the diverse influences on American culture, helped to transform notions of American identity from exclusive and...

Sufism

Sufism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
993 words

...came into being much later than teachers and schools, and they clearly resemble traditional orders in, for example, Christianity. The orders are therefore regarded as secondary, and few, if any, of their putative founders, famous Sufi masters, were really connected with their establishment. Their practices are mostly of a devotional autohypnotic nature, and produce conditioned states which are much at variance with essential Sufi theory relating to the need for individual and specificzteaching. Most groups which employ the name Sufi in the Middle and Far East...

Wundt, Wilhelm Max

Wundt, Wilhelm Max (1832–1920)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
858 words

...reductionist nor a dualist and that he believed that the field of application of experiment in psychology was distinctly limited. Wundt's autobiography, Erlebtes und Erkanntes ( 1920 ), gives a straightforward account of his life and career and describes in some detail the establishment of his Institute for Experimental Psychology. This narrative outlines in a most interesting way Wundt's relations with a number of his contemporaries, not least E. H. Weber and G. T. Fechner , both of whom resided in Leipzig and both of whom he came to know well, despite...

catecholamines

catecholamines   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
811 words

...appropriate to these states. It is of interest that drugs which appear to have clinical activity in alleviating depressive illness are able to act by altering the availability of noradrenaline at the receptor level. Noradrenaline fibres may also have a role to play in the establishment and selection of normal synaptic connections during development and in the recovery of function after damage to the nervous system. The third main group of catecholamine neurons of the brain are those utilizing dopamine as transmitter. These neurons have been the subject of...

GEORGE, James

GEORGE, James (1800–1870)   Reference library

David Puller

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Upper Canada and commissioned to pastor the congregation in Scarborough. The church grew under his leadership from about seventy members to two hundred and fifty and built a manse for his residence. In the community, George founded a temperance society and lobbied for the establishment of a public library. George led his congregation into Church of Scotland in Canada on 4 August 1834 and served as moderator for the synod in 1841 . During the 1837 rebellion, he led a delegation of men from Scarborough into Toronto to express support for the government...

MARSH, George Perkins

MARSH, George Perkins (1801–1882)   Reference library

Sean Brown

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Marsh developed a distinguished political career in the Whig party. He served as a member of the Supreme Council for Vermont’s upper chamber beginning in 1835 and, beginning in 1842 , he served three terms in the U.S. House of Representatives, playing a key role in the establishment of the Smithsonian Institution. Finally, Marsh worked for the state department. He was Minister to the Turkish Empire from 1849 till 1854 and in 1861 he was appointed by Lincoln as Minister to Italy, a position he held until his death. Marsh died on 23 July 1882 in...

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