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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

General Council of the Press

General Council of the Press   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
26 words

...General Council of the Press The original name of the UK’s Press Council from the time of its establishment in 1953 until 1963 . See also self-regulation...

Royal Commissions on the Press

Royal Commissions on the Press   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
237 words

...ownership . It led to the establishment of both the General Council of the Press and the National Council for the Training of Journalists . The second commission resulted in the General Council of the Press changing its name to the Press Council and extending membership beyond the newspaper industry to include a number of lay members. The third commission recommended that the Press Council should have an equal number of lay and industry members and be chaired independently, plus a number of other reforms including the establishment of a code of conduct...

news flow

news flow   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
124 words

...of staff reporters , freelance journalists , news agencies , wire services , public relations outfits, and members of the audience via user-generated content . The news editor will get into difficulty if the news flow ever reduces to a trickle or dries up, hence the establishment of newsgathering routines such as the calls . 2. The direction in which major news stories and their framing tends to flow internationally, which has traditionally been from the more powerful countries in the world to developing countries ( see cultural imperialism...

BBC governors

BBC governors   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
111 words

...BBC governors The governing body of the BBC before the BBC Trust took over that role in 2007 in the wake of the Hutton Report . From their creation in 1927 , the BBC governors were dominated by loyal members of the UK establishment who at times of conflict were often said to adopt a deferential posture described by critics as a ‘pre-emptive cringe’. Appointed by the monarch on the advice of governments of the day, governors occasionally asserted their independence by defending the integrity of BBC journalism when it came under fire from politicians,...

hackgate

hackgate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
429 words

...the establishment of the Leveson Inquiry shortly afterwards, the resignations of the UK’s most senior police officer and of the government’s chief spin doctor , and the demise of the Press Complaints Commission . The scandal also resulted in the arrests of numerous journalists on suspicion of a variety of alleged offences, and compensation pay-outs totalling many millions of pounds to hundreds of people whose private communications had been accessed unlawfully in pursuit of possible stories, as well as claims that the political and police establishment had...

Times

Times   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
373 words

...including coverage of the Crimean War by pioneering war correspondent William Howard Russell ( 1820–1907 ). The Times earned the nickname ‘The Thunderer’ for its reputed ability to make the powerful quake on occasions, although when it spoke it was as part of the Establishment within the bourgeois public sphere rather than as a voice of opposition ( compare radical press ); indeed, it once promoted itself as the paper for ‘top people’. It was only in 1966 that the paper put news rather than advertisements on its front page. That same year...

Leveson Inquiry

Leveson Inquiry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
565 words

...any criminal proceedings. The Leveson Report itself was 1,987 pages long and contained 92 recommendations, including a proposal for a new, independent, self-regulatory body (to replace the PCC ) with the power to investigate alleged wrongdoing and impose sanctions; the establishment of an arbitration service as a low(er)-cost way of dealing with potential legal actions against the press; and the setting up of a ‘whistleblowing hotline’ for the use of any journalists who feel they are being asked to do something unethical ( see also conscience clause )....

Hutton Report

Hutton Report   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
862 words

...story and that the BBC failed both to check his story thoroughly enough in advance and to investigate it once the government had complained. Hutton’s findings were greeted with surprise and dismay by many journalists in the UK, who immediately declared it to be a one-sided establishment ‘whitewash’ that placed unrealistic demands on reporters to obtain absolute proof before running critical stories. Gilligan’s story was defended by many as being more right than wrong, and in the public interest , although others blamed him for bringing the government’s wrath...

reinscription

reinscription  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
In cultural and literary theory, the re-establishment of an existing concept in a different form or context from its conventional one but without any radical transformation. A transgressive ...
Alfred Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe

Alfred Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe  

(1865–1922) Britishnewspaper proprietorBorn Alfred Harmsworth in Dublin, he founded the Daily Mail (1896), the Daily Mirror (1903), and bought The Times in 1908. His brother, Viscount Rothermere ...
cultural studies

cultural studies  

The critical analysis of the texts and practices of everyday life in contemporary society: an interdisciplinary enterprise involving both the humanities and the social sciences. Its territory (in the ...
Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore  

(1861–1941)Indian writer, who was awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1915 he was knighted but repudiated the honour in protest against the Amritsar Massacre (1919).Tagore was born into a ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
reinscription

reinscription   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
37 words

... In cultural and literary theory, the re-establishment of an existing concept in a different form or context from its conventional one but without any radical transformation. A transgressive reinscription would subvert the concept ( see transgression...

legitimation

legitimation (sociology)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
78 words

... (sociology) A term deriving from Max Weber for the process in which social acceptance is sought for the validity of the authority of a ruling group or the existence of a nation-state. The establishment of legitimacy is essential for political stability: without it, there would be a legitimation crisis . Marxist theorists have noted the ideological role of the mass media in the legitimation of capitalist society through the engineering of consensus ( see also manufacture of consent...

convention

convention   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
213 words

... point of view , continuity editing , and certain deep-seated literary conventions, such as the expectation of resolution. Certain film genres are heavily reliant on conventionalized use of costume , mise - en - scene , and certain narrative tropes and themes: indeed the establishment of an interrelated set of conventions relating to form and content are central to the constitution of any genre . Convention is also a feature of cinemagoing: everyone stops talking when the opening credits of a film roll and suspends disbelief to accept that complete...

Society for Cinema and Media Studies

Society for Cinema and Media Studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Film Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
199 words

...New York City in 1957. The meetings led to the founding, in 1959 , of the Society of Cinematologists: the name, inspired by the French filmology movement, was changed to Society of Cinema Studies in 1969 . Annual conferences held since 1960 have tracked the emergence and establishment of film studies as an academic discipline. Since 1961 , the organization has published an academic journal, Cinema Journal (until 1966 titled The Journal of the Society of Cinematologists ) ( see film journal ). The organization provides a conduit for academic and...

cultural studies

cultural studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
264 words

...postcolonialism , queer theory , and initially (to a lesser extent) psychoanalytic theory . It can be seen partly as a reaction against Leavisite cultural elitism and the Frankfurt school ’s bleak stance on mass culture . Its emergence as a discipline is marked by the establishment of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS, or the Birmingham school ) at the University of Birmingham in the UK in 1964 (lasting until the 1990s). Primary concerns of cultural studies include: ideological processes, social and historical context, subcultures ...

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