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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., The A term long used to denote in particular the established church of england , but now a popular designation for the group or class of people who have authority within a society, especially, in Britain, those who control not only the Church of England but the government, the civil service and the armed forces. It has a somewhat derogatory significance associated with reaction, privilege and ‘stuffiness’. By the ‘Establishment’ I do not mean only the centres of official power – though they are certainly part of it – but rather the whole matrix...

Establishment, the

Establishment, the   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

..., the a group in a society exercising power and influence over matters of policy or taste, and seen as resisting change. The term is recorded intermittently from the 1920s, but in British English derives its current use from an article by the journalist Henry Fairlie in the Spectator of 1955...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of London Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

..., The An ironically named club founded in 1961 by Peter Cook ( 1937–95 ) and Nicholas Luard ( 1937–2004 ). Based at 18 Greek Street, Soho , the Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-establishment satire boom of that era. It closed in 1964...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...exercised … the ‘Establishment’ can be seen at work in the activities of, not only the Prime Minister, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Earl Marshal, but of such lesser mortals as the Chairman of the Arts Council, the Director-General of the BBC, and even the editor of the Times Literary Supplement , not to mention dignitaries like Lady Violet Bonham Carter . henry fairlie : in The Spectator ( 23 September 1955 ) In the early 1960s, Peter Cook 's ironically named London club The Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-Establishment satire boom of...

North

North   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by pleading parliamentary privilege. Northeast Passage, The A hoped-for route to the east round the north extremity of Asia. It was first attempted by Sir Hugh Willoughby ( d. c. 1554 ) and Richard Chancellor ( d.1556 ) in 1553–4 , and its only practical result was the establishment of the Muscovy Company ( 1555 ). The passage was traversed by the Swedish explorer Nils Nordenskjöld in 1879 . Northern Bear, The An old nickname for Russia. In political cartoons the former USSR was often depicted as a bear. Northern gate of the sun, The The sign of cancer...

Firestone, Shulamith

Firestone, Shulamith (1945–2012)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Shulamith ( 1945–2012 ) Canadian born feminist scholar , activist , and writer . A central figure in the establishment of radical feminism , her best known work The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution ( 1970 ) remains a crucial milestone in the field of gender studies. Firestone's thesis was that the political inequality of women originates with their reproductive capacity, which forces them into a state of dependency on men (which in turn strengthens the power of the patriarchy by making a political choice appear a political...

Firestone, Shulamith

Firestone, Shulamith (1945–2012)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Shulamith ( 1945–2012 ) Canadian -born feminist scholar , activist , and writer . A central figure in the establishment of radical feminism , her best known work The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution ( 1970 ) remains a crucial milestone in the field of gender studies. Firestone’s thesis was that the political inequality of women originates with their reproductive capacity, which forces them into a state of dependency on men (which in turn strengthens the power of the patriarchy by making a political choice appear a...

Kautsky, Karl

Kautsky, Karl (1854–1938)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...provided him with a basic means of living, even while living abroad, as he frequently did. Kautsky was an outspoken critic of the First World War. After the November Revolution in Germany (the chaotic period from the end of the First World War in November 1918 until the establishment of the Weimar Republic in August 1919 ), he was given a senior position in the Foreign Office of the briefly reigning revolutionary government, which he used to try to prove Germany's war guilt. A prolific author, he wrote a biography of Engels as well as a detailed account...

Kautsky, Karl

Kautsky, Karl (1854–1938)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...provided him with a basic means of living, even while living abroad, as he frequently did. Kautsky was an outspoken critic of the First World War. After the November Revolution in Germany (the chaotic period from the end of the First World War in November 1918 until the establishment of the Weimar Republic in August 1919 ), he was given a senior position in the Foreign Office of the briefly reigning revolutionary government, which he used to try to prove Germany’s war guilt. A prolific author, he wrote a biography of Engels as well as a detailed account...

anti-psychiatry

anti-psychiatry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...on certain people. It saw psychosis as a shamanistic journey by means of which people tried to express the oppressive effects of socialization. The term itself was coined by David Cooper , a South African psychiatrist who collaborated with R. D. Laing and others in the establishment of Kingsley Hall , an experiment in community-psychiatry started in 1965 in East London. Mary Barnes: Two Accounts of a Journey through Madness ( 1971 ) written by one of the patients at Kingsley Hall in collaboration with her psychiatrist Joseph Berke offers a keen,...

Metz, Christian

Metz, Christian (1931–93)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Christian ( 1931–93 ) French film theorist . Metz introduced film studies to both structuralism and psychoanalysis and in the process helped initiate the establishment of film theory. Instead of asking what films mean, Metz set out to discover how they make meaning, and in doing so revolutionized the way film was written and thought about in the academy. Born in Béziers in southern France, Metz studied classical languages and ancient history at the École Normale Supérieure and then completed a doctorate in general linguistics at the Sorbonne. Always a...

Arendt, Hannah

Arendt, Hannah (1906–75)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... Giorgio Agamben has developed this aspect of Arendt's work in his analyses of what he calls the homo sacer . Probably her most influential work, The Human Condition ( 1958 ) pursued the problems raised in the previous work by examining political action, specifically the establishment of rights. She gained public notoriety in 1963 when she reported on the Eichmann war crimes trials in Jerusalem for the New Yorker (later in the same year published in book form as Eichmann in Jerusalem ). Eichmann was responsible for a large proportion of the...

Ingarden, Roman

Ingarden, Roman (1893–1970)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Roman ( 1893–1970 ) Polish literary theorist who worked on phenomenology and had a significant influence on the establishment of both Reception Theory and Reception Aesthetics . Born in Kraków, then a part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, Ingarden studied mathematics in Lviv (in the Ukraine), and philosophy in Göttingen under Edmund Husserl . He moved to Freiburg with Husserl and completed his doctorate on Henri Bergson under his supervision in 1918 . He then returned to Poland, teaching first at Lviv University, until it was closed because...

anti-psychiatry

anti-psychiatry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...on certain people. It saw psychosis as a shamanistic journey by means of which people tried to express the oppressive effects of socialization. The term itself was coined by David Cooper , a South African psychiatrist who collaborated with R. D. Laing and others in the establishment of Kingsley Hall , an experiment in community-psychiatry started in 1965 in East London. Mary Barnes: Two Accounts of a Journey through Madness ( 1971 ), written by one of the patients at Kingsley Hall in collaboration with her psychiatrist Joseph Berke , offers a keen...

Metz, Christian

Metz, Christian (1931–93)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Christian ( 1931–93 ) French film theorist . Metz introduced film studies to both structuralism and psychoanalysis and in the process helped initiate the establishment of film theory. Instead of asking what films mean, Metz set out to discover how they make meaning, and in doing so revolutionized the way film was written and thought about in the academy. Born in Béziers in southern France, Metz studied classical languages and ancient history at the École Normale Supérieure and then completed a doctorate in general linguistics at the Sorbonne....

Ingarden, Roman

Ingarden, Roman (1893–1970)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Roman ( 1893–1970 ) Polish literary theorist who worked on phenomenology and had a significant influence on the establishment of both Reception Theory and Reception Aesthetics . Born in Kraków, then a part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, Ingarden studied mathematics in Lviv (in the Ukraine), and philosophy in Göttingen under Edmund Husserl . He moved to Freiburg with Husserl and completed his doctorate on Henri Bergson under his supervision in 1918 . He then returned to Poland, teaching first at Lviv University, until it was closed...

Arendt, Hannah

Arendt, Hannah (1906–75)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Giorgio Agamben has developed this aspect of Arendt’s work in his analyses of what he calls the homo sacer . Probably her most influential work, The Human Condition ( 1958 ) pursued the problems raised in the previous work by examining political action, specifically the establishment of rights. She gained public notoriety in 1963 when she reported on the Eichmann war crimes trials in Jerusalem for the New Yorker (later in the same year published in book form as Eichmann in Jerusalem ). Eichmann was responsible for a large proportion of the...

Durkheim, Émile

Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...go to rabbinical school, Durkheim instead studied at the prestigious college, the École Normale Supérieure (his classmates included Henri Bergson and Jean Jaurès ). He determined to take a scientific approach to the study of society, which put him at odds with the humanist establishment and made his career progression difficult as a consequence. He obtained a post at the University of Bordeaux in 1887 and for the next 15 years this was his base from which to launch his assault on the French academic system and begin the work of establishing sociology as a...

Durkheim, Émile

Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...go to rabbinical school, Durkheim instead studied at the prestigious college, the École Normale Supérieure (his classmates included Henri Bergson and Jean Jaurès ). He determined to take a scientific approach to the study of society, which put him at odds with the humanist establishment and made his career progression difficult as a consequence. He obtained a post at the University of Bordeaux in 1887 and for the next 15 years this was his base from which to launch his assault on the French academic system and begin the work of establishing sociology as a...

imagined community

imagined community   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...time, the time of calendars, clocks, and markets, which is concerned with temporal coincidence rather than destiny and fulfilment. This mode of time is perfectly embodied by the newspaper which places in contiguity news of events that share only their temporality. It was the establishment of print culture, firstly through the mechanical production of Bibles and then even more strongly through the distribution of newspapers, that was the most important causal factor in creating the cultural conditions needed for the idea of nation to become the political norm....

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