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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Strype, John

Strype, John (1643–1737)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

...John ( 1643–1737 ) English ecclesiastical historian Memorials of Thomas Cranmer ( 1694 ) Non-Fiction Annals of the Reformation and Establishment of Religion ( 1709 ) Non-Fiction The Life and Acts of Matthew Parker ( 1711 ) Non-Fiction The Life and Acts of John Whitgift ( 1718 ) Non-Fiction Ecclesiastical Memorials ( 1721 ) Non-Fiction...

Tindal, Matthew

Tindal, Matthew (1657–1733)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

... The Liberty of the Press ( 1698 ) Non-Fiction The Rights of the Christian Church Asserted ( 1706 ) Non-Fiction A Defence of the Rights of the Christian Church ( 1707 ) Non-Fiction The Defection Considered ( 1717 ) Non-Fiction A Defence of Our Present Happy Establishment ( 1722 ) Non-Fiction Christianity as Old as the Creation ( 1730 ) Non-Fiction...

Hoadly, Benjamin

Hoadly, Benjamin (1676–1761)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

...Benjamin ( 1676–1761 ) English prelate , Bishop successively of Bangor , Hereford , Salisbury , and Winchester The Reasonableness of Conformity to the Church of England ( 1703 ) Non-Fiction The Happiness of the Present Establishment ( 1708 ) Non-Fiction The Nature of the Kingdom, or Church of Christ ( 1717 ) Non-Fiction The Common Rights of Subjects, Defended ( 1719 ) Non-Fiction A Plain Account of the Nature and End of the Sacrament of the Lord's-Supper ( 1735 ) Non-Fiction Sixteen Sermons ( 1754 ) Non-Fiction Twenty Sermons...

Horovitz, Michael

Horovitz, Michael (1935–)   Reference library

Nathan Hamilton

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...experimental writing. Among those published were Samuel * Beckett , Stevie * Smith , and William Burroughs. He edited it for fifty years and in that time oversaw numerous spin-off initiatives, such as the Poetry Olympics reading series. Eccentric, erudite, and anti-establishment, he was a participant in the International Poetry Incarnation at the Royal Albert Hall, London in June 1965 . The event included Allen * Ginsberg , on his first visit to the UK, who later described Horovitz as a ‘popular, experienced, experimental, New Jerusalem, Jazz...

Brady, Andrea

Brady, Andrea (1974–)   Reference library

Carrie Etter

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... 1997 . She counts among her influences Renaissance and early modern poetry, which she teaches at Queen Mary, University of London, as well as the * New York and * Cambridge avant-gardes. She herself has been influential not only through her poetry but also through her establishment of Archive of the Now, a print and audio archive of innovative poetry, and as co-founder and editor, with Keston * Sutherland , of Barque Press. As an early modern scholar, she has also published two critical works, English Funerary Elegy in the Seventeenth Century: Laws in...

Yu, Ouyang

Yu, Ouyang (1955–)   Reference library

Heather Yeung

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...interrogating cultural identity and diversity in Australia with a ‘tongue held | between two languages like a vice’ ( Moon over Melbourne (Papyrus, 1995)). In his taut, lyrical free verse, introspection and self-criticism are balanced with criticism of social and cultural establishments: poetry is one of the freest means of political commentary in China, and his work in both languages is shot through with a concern for his native country, and for the Chinese in Australia. Heather Yeung...

Corso, (Nunzio) Gregory

Corso, (Nunzio) Gregory (1930–2001)   Reference library

Martin Seymour-Smith

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...… naive … strange—sweet—smart—why not’. Unlike his old associates, he refused to succumb to the White House or literary agents and, for many, his was the only surviving authentic Beat voice—beat up, certainly, and faded, but still full of good-hearted hatred for the establishment. On his death, Robert * Creeley wrote: ‘Lots of us propose to be poets but who finally stakes all, or just takes all, as being that way?’ See Mindfield: New and Selected Poems (2nd edn., Thunder’s Mouth, 1998) and An Accidental Autobiography: The Selected Letters of...

Language Poetry

Language Poetry   Reference library

Jeremy Noel-Tod

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...maintained a widely read blog on ‘post-avant’ poetry. The election of Hejinian as a Chancellor of the Academy of American Poets in 2006 and the award of the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry to Armantrout’s Versed ( 2009 ) confirmed Language poetry’s acceptance by the literary establishment. See The Language Book (Southern Illinois University Press, 1984), ed. Bernstein and Andrews , and In the American Tree (National Poetry Foundation, 1986; new edn., 2002), ed. Silliman . Jeremy Noel-Tod...

Blackburn, Paul

Blackburn, Paul (1926–71)   Reference library

Sven Birkerts

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...there throughout the 1960s. The publication of The Collected Poems of Paul Blackburn (Persea, 1985 ) did much to bring this poet into larger public awareness. For Blackburn had been, hitherto, a poet of fugitive small-press appearances, largely neglected by the critical establishment. But he is increasingly seen, along with his friend Robert * Creeley , as an important link between the modernist innovations of Pound, the experimentalism of the * Black Mountain poets , and the peculiarly American celebrations of the * Beats . Blackburn's oeuvre can be...

Young, Andrew

Young, Andrew (1885–1971)   Reference library

Christopher Reid

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...poems, ‘Into Hades’ and ‘A Traveller in Time’, which purport to recount other-worldly journeys made by the poet himself and which were published in 1958 under the joint title, Out of the World and Back . Because Young revised or rejected so much of his early work, the establishment of a canonic text has been no simple matter. After the poet's own 1950 edition, a Collected Poems edited by Leonard Clark was published in 1960 , and this was followed in 1974 by a Complete Poems , also edited by Clark . The most satisfactory text, however, is...

Kavanagh, Patrick

Kavanagh, Patrick (1904–67)   Reference library

Bernard O'Donoghue

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...being too concerned with the role and reception of the poet. In 1952 he and Peter used the latter's American savings to launch Kavanagh's Weekly , which ran for thirteen issues between April and July, extending into polemic Kavanagh ’s resentments at the Dublin literary establishment and the pettinesses of Irish politics. There followed a disastrous period in his life: he sued the insignificant weekly the Leader for libel and was treated with contemptuous hostility in the courts, and in 1953 he developed lung cancer. But then, miraculously, followed...

Fisher, Roy

Fisher, Roy (1930–)   Reference library

William Scammell

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...he has worked as a freelance writer and musician. Fisher is an elusive, skilful poet who has absorbed an unusual number of influences. ‘I get used as a between-worlds counter in reviewers’ debates’, he has said, the worlds in question being those of the ‘underground’ and the ‘establishment’. This is borne out by his publishing history: his early Collected Poems 1968: The Ghost of a Paper Bag ( 1969 ) was published by Fulcrum Press, noted for its championship of neglected figures; his later Poems 1955–1980 ( 1980 ) and Poems 1955–1987 ( 1988 ) by Oxford...

Eliot, T. S.

Eliot, T. S. (1888–1965)   Reference library

Hugh Haughton

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,588 words

...contrived oeuvres in twentieth-century literature. John * Berryman named ‘Prufrock’ the first ‘modern’ poem, and The Waste Land quickly became established as the archetypal monument of poetic modernity in English. During his later career Eliot became a thoroughly establishment figure, an embodiment of cultural conservatism and the doyen of academic criticism. Perhaps as a result, much of the most interesting subsequent poetry and criticism in the USA and Britain appeals to other values and directions than those he came to represent, especially in...

Gai Saber

Gai Saber   Reference library

M. Galvez

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...develop the concept of gai saber as the knowledge of proper poetic composition codified through competitions ( see poetic contests ), and the publication of grammatical treatises and works that cultivate its precepts. Consistent with med. principles of knowledge, this establishment and preservation of immutable rules make a science of poetry (Weiss). The founders of the Consistori de la Sobregaia Com-panhia del Gay Saber (Consistory of the Merry Band of the Gay Knowledge), an academy established at Toulouse in 1323 to preserve the Occitan troubadour ...

Rhapsode

Rhapsode   Reference library

R. A. Hornsby and T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...[ rhabdos ]”) . In early Greece, a singer who selected and “stitched together” his own poetry or that of others, originally a selection or a portion of epic poetry, usually the Iliad or the Odyssey , partly extemporaneously or from memory. By the 6th c. bce , with the establishment of what were regarded as authentic Homeric texts, the term labeled a professional class of performers who recited the Homeric poems in correct sequence, not merely selected extracts. Rhapsodes are to be distinguished from citharodes or aulodes , singers of lyric texts to...

Deixis

Deixis   Reference library

N. Pines

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...(such as the present moment from which a poem is spoken within its fiction) and relating it to other situations (e.g., a past event that informs that present) or by collapsing such distinctions (as Walt Whitman and Language poetry often do), deictics are factors in the establishment of a poetic persona , temporality, and relation to hist. See linguistics and poetics . Bibliography U. Weinreich , “On the Semantic Structure of Language,” Universals of Language , ed. J. Greenberg (1966) ; E. Benveniste , Problems in General Linguistics , trans. M....

Eisteddfod

Eisteddfod   Reference library

D. M. Lloyd and B. Bruch

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Rhys in 1176 at Cardigan. The early eisteddfod was an assembly of the guild or order of bards, convened under the aegis of a distinguished patron, and in the 16th c. even under royal commission. Its chief function was to regulate the affairs of the profession, such as the establishment of metrical rules and the issuance of licenses to those who had completed the prescribed stages of their apprenticeship. Awards were also granted for outstanding achievements in poetry and music. The most important of these eisteddfodau were Carmarthen (ca. 1450 ) and Caerwys...

Qiṭʿa

Qiṭʿa   Reference library

P. Losensky

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...most qiṭʿa are not, in fact, “fragments” of an original whole but constitute complete, self-standing poems. In pre-Islamic Ar. poetry, the qiṭʿa was most often employed for mourning the death of a warrior and calling for tribal vengeance. But with the rise of Islam and the establishment of a cosmopolitan empire in the 8th and 9th cs. ce , the thematic range of the qiṭʿa expanded tremendously. Since the prestige of the qasida genre made it the standard medium for political panegyric and court ceremony, the qiṭʿa became a favorite vehicle for the devel....

Basque Country, Poetry of the

Basque Country, Poetry of the   Reference library

M. J. Olaziregi

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,464 words

...lang., together with Castilian (Sp.), in the provinces in the Sp. Basque region; however, the same is not the case in the Fr. Basque Country, where Basque does not hold the status of an official lang. The consequences of this imbalance are easy to predict: factors such as the establishment of bilingual models of teaching and the existence of grants for publications in the Basque lang. have made the literary system in the Sp. Basque Country much stronger and more dynamic than that on the French side. Within Basque lit., poetry has always been a crucial genre. The...

Ethnopoetics

Ethnopoetics   Reference library

M. Damon

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...on the collection, trans., and sometimes emulation by Western (esp. U.S.) scholars and poets of indigenous verbal artifacts as “poetry.” The intentions were to acknowledge the cultural and aesthetic sophistication of these expressions, to introduce the Western literary establishment to these powerful cultural writings, and to declare them equal in significance and achievement to the canon of poetic masterpieces by individuated and revered poets. Major participants in the movement have included Rothenberg and Quasha; anthropologists Dell Hymes , Barbara...

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