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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Russ, Joanna

Russ, Joanna (1937– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...) constructs a series of alternate visions of female potential. Similar feminist issues are explored in We Who Are About To … ( 1977 ) and The Two of Them ( 1978 ). How To Suppress Women's Writing ( 1983 ) savagely cross-examines the American literary and publishing establishment for bias against women writers. Her short fiction, which varies from conventional science fiction to daunting experimental meditations, includes The Zanzibar Cat ( 1983 ) and The Hidden Side of the Moon ( 1987...

Three Guineas

Three Guineas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...were oppressed in the Victorian home. They should form an ‘anonymous and secret Society of Outsiders’ which would challenge tyranny through ridicule and scepticism and a refusal to ‘join’. This utopian argument involves a wide-ranging attack on the cultural and educational establishment, the media, the Church, psychiatry, and science. Woolf's friends and critics alike took fright at the essay's radical stance and it was dismissed or neglected for many years before becoming an important influence on feminist thinking. See feminist criticism...

Common Reader, The

Common Reader, The (1925)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...from her enormous output of reviewing (mostly, anonymously, for the Times Literary Supplement ). The title phrase is taken from Dr Johnson . The essays are written from the point of view of a highly cultured, widely read, largely self-educated ‘outsider’ to the educational establishment, asking, with energy, curiosity, intuition, and wit, of a great range of literature from Greeks and Elizabethans to contemporary fiction, ‘how should one read a book?’ The Common Reader has twenty-five essays, including ‘On Not Knowing Greek’, ‘Defoe’, ‘Jane Austen’, ‘Modern...

Adams, Richard

Adams, Richard (1920– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Civil War seen through the eyes of Traveller, General E. Lee's horse, and told by Traveller to Tom , a domestic cat in his stables. Adams has confessed to being more interested in telling a good story than in writing ‘great literature’, and he has found the literary establishment reciprocating with consistent critical disdain. The Day Gone By ( 1990 ) is an...

New Machiavelli, The

New Machiavelli, The (1911)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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Current Version:
2005

...is slowly disillusioned by the English political system, by his colleagues' pettiness and futility, and by a politics that delivers only botched cities and jerry-built suburbs. As a reformer, though, he faces as much hostility from the general public as from the political establishment, and, linking political blindness to sexual repression, Wells shows that Remington's defeat by his enemies is inevitable once he has deserted his wife for a mistress. Like Ann Veronica ( 1909 ), the book arose in the context of Wells's bitter parting from the Fabian...

Psmith in the City

Psmith in the City (1910)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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Current Version:
2005

...& Charles Black. Mike Jackson, who would rather be playing cricket for the 'Varsity, is compelled by the state of family finances to work for the New Asiatic Bank; Psmith's father is tickled by the idea of Commerce and despatches his dandyish, monocled son to work at the same establishment. With Psmith's languid, disconcerting help, Mike survives the tedium of clerical work until the cricket season proper starts, when he gives it all up to score a century for Middlesex at Lords. An uneasy blend of school story (Mike's sporting triumphs) and farce (Psmith's...

Bennett, Alan

Bennett, Alan (1934– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Oxford. He first came to prominence as one of the authors and performers of the anti-establishment revue Beyond the Fringe ( 1960 ). There is also a satiric thrust to some of his own plays, notably Forty Years On ( 1968 ), set in the assembly hall of Albion House, a public school, in which scenes involving the headmaster and his colleagues are intercut with extracts from the school play, itself a series of witty skits on the cultural and political history of establishment England in the twentieth century. This treats subjects ranging from Virginia Woolf ,...

Belloc, Hilaire

Belloc, Hilaire (1870–1953)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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Current Version:
2005

... Elodie Agnes Hogan ( d. 1914 ). Born in France of a French father and an English mother, and obliged to spend eighteen months as a conscript in the French army, Belloc was educated at the Oratory School and Balliol College, Oxford, but always felt alienated from the English establishment. He began his professional writing career as a versifier, publishing in 1896 both Verses and Sonnets and the deliciously cruel The Bad Child's Book of Beasts , illustrated by his Oxford friend Lord Basil Blackwood ( 1870–1917 ). The latter parody of Victorian moral...

Corso, Gregory

Corso, Gregory (1930–2001)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...The Vestal Lady on Brattle ( 1955 ), his first collection of verse, was published in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where In This Hung-Up Age , the first of his several short plays, was produced in 1955 . His meeting with Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac in 1956 led to the establishment of his reputation as a poet of the San Francisco Renaissance ; his collections of the period include Gasoline ( 1958 ), Bomb ( 1958 ), and The Happy Birthday of Death ( 1960 ), which display the humour, politically directed moral outrage, and mystical rapture that are...

Critical Quarterly, The

Critical Quarterly, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...pages in the 1960s included Ted Hughes , Seamus Heaney , Charles Tomlinson , R. S. Thomas , and Sylvia Plath ; Raymond Williams , Bernard Bergonzi , John Wain , and Malcolm Bradbury supplied critical commentaries. The magazine was among the primary channels for the establishment of poetic reputations in its earlier years. The twice-yearly publication of a supplementary Critical Survey between 1960 and 1973 had considerable influence in addressing matters relating to secondary education. After a period of editorial hostility towards the...

Watson, Sir William

Watson, Sir William (1858–1935)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...where he established himself as a literary journalist. Wordsworth's Grave ( 1891 ), the title piece of which is arguably his best poem, gained him wide notice, and Lachrymae Musarum ( 1892 ), his elegies on the death of Tennyson, made him the favourite of the literary establishment of the day. The moral rectitude of his verse gained him acclaim as a champion of the traditional poetic virtues threatened by the decadent poets of the 1890s, towards whom he was publicly hostile. He was firmly proposed for the laureateship, but became ineligible as a result...

Lindsay, Norman

Lindsay, Norman (1879–1969)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...illustrator. This period is reflected in his first novel, A Curate in Bohemia ( 1913 ). In 1901 he began his long association with the Sydney-based Bulletin as artist, reviewer, and contributor of essays and fiction. His paintings and drawings, often condemned by the establishment as immoral, aroused much controversy for their overt sexuality. He was the main driving force behind Vision , a magazine edited by his son Jack Lindsay and Kenneth Slessor . Creative Effort ( 1920 ) and Madam Life's Lovers ( 1929 ) express his aesthetic credo. Deeply...

Lucie, Doug

Lucie, Doug (1953– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...for Lucie, seen as menacing a Britain which, though morally damaged by the ‘Thatcher years’, still embodied some traditional decencies. His more familiar cynicism reasserted itself in the melodramatic Gaucho ( 1994 ), about a decent man alienated enough by a malign British establishment to become a drugs smuggler, arms dealer, and international...

Barker, Howard

Barker, Howard (1946– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Howard ( 1946–  ), British dramatist , born in London, educated at Sussex University. His first substantial works were Claw ( 1975 ), about a petty criminal exploited and finally eliminated by a corrupt establishment, and Stripwell ( 1975 ), in which it is the representative of authority, a self-doubting judge, who ends up killed, this time by a vengeful sociopath. These plays, which can be compared with those of Howard Brenton and David Hare , have been followed by others equally combative in their social criticism but more darkly comic in tone...

Kramer, Larry

Kramer, Larry (1935– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...York–Fire Island gay circuit in the free-wheeling 1970s, but others criticized the novel for its seemingly moralistic tone towards the gay sub-culture in which Kramer had himself participated. With the advent of AIDS, Kramer's confrontations against the political and medical establishment won the approval of many in the gay world. In 1981 he founded the Gay Men's Health Crisis in New York, and in 1988 he helped to form ACT-UP (the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power). Kramer later broke with both organizations and himself contracted AIDS. The Normal Heart (...

Canadian Literature

Canadian Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Literature , the first periodical to be devoted exclusively to critical consideration of writing produced in Canada. It has appeared quarterly since its establishment in 1959 by George Woodcock at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Woodcock was succeeded in 1977 by W. H. New . The journal's inception marked the growing confidence in the value of indigenous writing which was intrinsic to the strengthening belief in an independent cultural identity felt in Canada from the late 1950s onward. Woodcock's desire to avoid the subordination of...

Caute, David

Caute, David (1936– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...civilization and its relations with the Third World informs a number of novels, including At Fever Pitch ( 1959 ), set during Ghana's emergence into nationhood, The K-Factor ( 1983 ), and News from Nowhere ( 1986 ), both of which reflect the turmoil preceding the establishment of Zimbabwe. Recognized as an intellectually stimulating writer, Caute has been censured for the dominance of political analysis in his fiction. Among his other novels are The Occupation ( 1971 ), concerning an academic's quest for self-knowledge; The Women's Hour ( 1991...

Childers, Erskine

Childers, Erskine (1870–1922)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...1895–1910 ). From 1910 he agitated for Home Rule in Ireland and used his own yacht, the Asgard , to supply German arms to the Irish volunteers in 1914 . Elected to the Dáil Éireann in 1921 , he was Principal Secretary to the delegation for the Irish–UK treaty. After the establishment of the Irish Free State, Childers joined the IRA, becoming Director of Publicity. He was court-martialled and executed in 1922 . In The Riddle of the Sands ( 1903 ), his only work of fiction, two amateurs attempt to foil a German plan to mass a fleet of boats and barges in...

Patchen, Kenneth

Patchen, Kenneth (1911–72)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...1947 ) and The Famous Boating Party ( 1954 ). His prose work includes The Journal of Albion Moonlight ( 1941 ), and two novels, the satirical Memoirs of a Shy Pornographer ( 1945 ) and See You in the Morning ( 1948 ). Reflecting his membership of that disaffected anti-establishment culture that came to maturity in the post-Depression years, there are two dominant strains in Patchen's work. The first is that of the social polemicist raging against the brash materialism of American common culture and the way it condemns its citizens to a life of social and...

Seven Pillars of Wisdom, The

Seven Pillars of Wisdom, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...examination of his motives, with the result that Revolt in the Desert achieved commercial success in the following year. A trade edition of the complete text was published in 1935 . The book describes events between Lawrence's arrival in Jidda in October 1916 and the establishment of an Arab government in Damascus two years later. Episodic, vividly descriptive, accounts of the actions of the highly mobile campaign and the desert landscapes in which it took place form the essential substance of the work. Much controversy has surrounded the matter of...

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