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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Manciple

Manciple   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

..., Maunciple . A manciple was an officer or servant who purchased provisions for a college or a legal inn of court (or ‘temple’, I.567). It is for such a legal establishment that the ‘gentil’ Manciple of the General Prologue (I.567–86) works. We are not told much else about him. The tone of the portrait (if it can be called a portrait, since it contains no visual detail and concentrates exclusively on his business activities) is ironic. He is an expert buyer, and though he is unlearned he can deceive his learned masters. It may be significant that he...

Elye

Elye   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...but was raised bodily into heaven by a whirlwind (2 Kings 2:1–18). This is ruefully alluded to by the dreamer in The House of Fame (588). There was a widespread belief that he and Enoch would return from the Earthly Paradise to challenge Antichrist ( Antecrist ) before the establishment of the Messianic kingdom. The friars were fond of associating themselves with Elijah and Elisha—the Carmelites, established in the early 13th c., named them as their founders—and this claim was sometimes used against them in anti-fraternal satire. In The Summoner's Tale ,...

Arthour

Arthour   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

..., Artour , Arthur , son of Uther Pendragon, legendary king of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth ( Gaufride ) told the story of his rise to power with the help of the prophet Merlin, his marriage to Guinevere, his establishment of a mighty empire, and how he was mortally wounded in battle against Mordred and carried off to the Isle of Avalon. It became the subject of many romances . A few medieval chroniclers expressed doubts about the historicity of Geoffrey's story, but even after the legend had been finally demolished by sceptical historians, the fame...

pilgrimage

pilgrimage   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...declaredly undertaken as an act of either piety or penance . The establishment of shrines with images at those places to which pilgrimage was taken further encouraged the habit; indulgences were often available to those who completed such pilgrimage. The favourite destinations for pilgrimage throughout Christendom were Jerusalem, with its many places associated with the life of Christ, and Rome with its shrines to the memory of the early martyrs and of those associated with the establishment of the Church; the Wife of Bath had visited both and had also...

Zodiak

Zodiak   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and planets are restricted. The Moon's passage through the stars is easily seen and recorded, but the Sun's is less obvious. No matter which came first in (pre-)history, it was natural that the stars and constellations along the way should assume a special importance. The establishment of the Zodiac in its final form (with twelve constellations) took many centuries. With the mathematization of astronomy in Mesopotamia the constellation names were transferred to the signs, twelve uniform divisions each of 30° extent. ( See signe .) In Cicero and many other...

Monk, The

Monk, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...associated with the names of St Basil ( Basilie ) and St Benedict ( Beneit ) had made a remarkable contribution to learning and piety. At various times (especially in the 10th and 12th c.) dissatisfaction with the wealth and worldliness led to movements of reform, and the establishment of new stricter orders such as the Cistercians (founded in 1098 by St Robert of Molesme , and famous for its son St Bernard ) or the Carthusians (founded in 1084 by St Bruno ). In the high Middle Ages the monks and their privileges were challenged by the new mendicant...

Aristotle

Aristotle (384–322 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... ( c. 1220–86 ) translate from Greek virtually the whole of what was then known. There was a certain degree of Christianization (as there had been of Plato by Augustine long before), and the end of the 13th c. saw much tension between elements of the ecclesiastical establishment and the new Latin Averroists with their Aristotelian learning ( see Averrois ). These controversies centred on the problems of the unicity of the intellect and the eternity of the created world. Another problem, with a clear Chaucerian echo, concerned determinism, and...

criticism of Chaucer I

criticism of Chaucer I   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of changes in pronunciation, and was thought to be limping. Cultural and social changes also had an effect. It is arguable that Chaucer (who certainly satirized the vices of the clergy) may have had some sympathy for some of the early Lollard criticisms of the ecclesiastical establishment, but in the 16th c. and later we find him firmly enrolled as a proto-Protestant. In the 16th c. there seems to be a preference for his courtly and aristocratic works. The poet's moral aspects rather than his comic tales are emphasized, and his ‘bawdiness’ becomes a problem. As...

Manciple

Manciple  

A manciple was an officer or servant who purchased provisions for a college or a legal inn of court (or ‘temple’, I.567). It is for such a legal establishment that ...

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