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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK)

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
48 words

...Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) A Church of England society founded in 1698 to promote the establishment of charity schools, and to distribute religious books and tracts. During the second half of the 19th cent. it published a good deal of popular fiction as reward books...

National Velvet

National Velvet (1930)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
61 words

...( 1930 ) A sensationally successful story by the British novelist and playwright Enid Bagnold ( 1889–1981 ), the story of a fourteen-year-old girl, Velvet Brown, who acquires a horse. The book was filmed in 1944 , starring Elizabeth Taylor as Velvet, and contributed to the establishment of the pony story as a popular genre of fiction for...

Lavender’s Blue

Lavender’s Blue (1954)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
75 words

...which remains popular more than six decades after its first publication. It is mostly the book’s illustrations by Harold Jones that mark it out. The artist was given a Special Commendation by the judging committee of the 1955 Carnegie Medal for these, which led to the establishment of the Kate Greenaway Medal , first awarded in 1956...

Batchelder, Mildred L.

Batchelder, Mildred L.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
109 words

...for twelve years before joining the staff of the American Library Association, where she eventually served as executive director of the Association for Library Service to Children. A strong advocate of sharing world literature with young readers, she was honored with the establishment of the Mildred L. Batchelder Award in 1966 . This annual prize is given to a book originally published in a foreign language, then translated into English and issued by an American publisher. Peter D....

Miller, Bertha Mahony

Miller, Bertha Mahony   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
128 words

...in the first issue, was to “blow the horn for fine books for boys and girls—their authors, their illustrators, and their publishers.” Editor of the magazine through 1950 , and subsequently the president of The Horn Book, Inc., until 1963 , Miller is a key figure in the establishment in the United States of the importance of literary criticism and standards of evaluation to books for young people. Roger...

Here Lies Arthur

Here Lies Arthur (2007)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
110 words

...King. So Gwyna becomes Gwyn for a time and learns that history is not necessarily what happens but rather the story people want to hear, and an identity is a thing that can be created. Set against the bleak landscape of the time between the fall of Roman Britain and the establishment of Saxon England, it was awarded the 2008 Carnegie Medal...

Blaumanis, Rudolfs

Blaumanis, Rudolfs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
159 words

...Rudolfs ( 1863–1908 ), Latvian author, son of a cook, who later turned to farming. Blaumanis, whose real name is Leonids Kärlis , worked at a business establishment in Riga for a while, wrote German and Latvian articles for journals, and became a member of the theater commission in Riga. After his father's death in 1894 he both ran the farm and worked as editor of a journal, writing more than 250 novellas and translating Russian literature. From 1901 until 1906 he lived in St. Petersburg, editing the journal Purva malā . Seriously ill and...

Brunet, Marta

Brunet, Marta   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
150 words

...Marta ( 1897–1967 ), one of the first Chilean women novelists, who surprised the male-dominated literary establishment with her honest portrayal of controversial issues such as poverty and injustice in her native country. Well-educated and widely traveled, she published her first novel, Montaña adentro (Inside the Mountain) in 1923 . She went on to publish another eight novels and over sixty short stories as well as journalistic articles and in 1961 became the second woman to be awarded the most distinguished Chilean national literary prize. Much of...

Elin-Pelin

Elin-Pelin   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
142 words

... ( 1933–1934 ). The moral dimension is important in all his works for children; they are clearly written from the superior adult position and are intent on teaching lessons. Elin-Pelin was also the founder and editor of several children's magazines and contributed to the establishment of children's literature in Bulgaria between the two world wars. See also Eastern European Countries . Maria...

Devetach, Laura

Devetach, Laura   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
132 words

...Pajaritos en bandadas ( Flock of Little Birds ), El Pajarito Empilchado ( The All-Dressed-Up Little Bird ), Los Morochitos , and Los Fileteados . She was a director of La Mancha, Papeles de Literatura Infantil , a magazine specializing in children's literature, from its establishment until 1998 . In the early 2000s Devetach coordinated workshops on reading, writing, and children's literature in different parts of her country and abroad. See also South America, Spanish-Speaking and Teaching Children's Literature . Maité...

Krupskaya, Nadezhda

Krupskaya, Nadezhda   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
172 words

...wide range of works, propagating the Communist doctrine. In the field of children's literature, she gave priority exclusively to its social, political, and educational values, and rejected all imaginative writing, especially fairy tales. She was the primary engine behind the establishment of library censorship in the Soviet Union. Supported by the official cultural policy of the Communist Party, Krupskaya persecuted talented children's writers such as Chukovsky and Samuel Marshak . Out of favor with Stalin, she withdrew from political activity in the late...

Hayes, John F.

Hayes, John F.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
151 words

...). Hayes's novels offer fast-paced, action-oriented reading, usually featuring a teenaged boy and his friend against the backdrop of a central event or conflict in Canadian history, such as the settlement of Newfoundland, the War of 1812 , the MacKenzie Rebellion , and the establishment of the Canadian Mounties. Noted for its historical accuracy and readability, his work has received, among other honors, the Canadian Governor General's Literary Award, the Quebec Scientific and Literary Award, the Book-of-the-Year for Children Medal, and the Vicky Metcalf...

ANSTEY, F.

ANSTEY, F. (1856–1934)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
152 words

...ANSTEY, F. ( Thomas Anstey Guthrie ) ( 1856–1934 ) . Born in London, the son of a military tailor, he went to school at Surbiton in Surrey, at an establishment that was the original of ‘Crichton House’ in his celebrated novel Vice Versa , published when he was 25. He wrote many other books, including Paleface and Redskin ( 1898 ), a collection of short stories for children, and Only Toys! ( 1903 ), a full-length fantasy , but he was never able to repeat the commercial and artistic success of Vice Versa . He did, however, have a long career as a...

Matilda

Matilda (1988)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
191 words

...Matilda ( 1988 ) Written by Roald Dahl and illustrated by Quentin Blake , the story of a preternaturally clever, Dickens-reading five-year-old girl (with very horrible parents) starting out at Crunchem Hall Primary School, an establishment terrorized by Miss Trunchbull, a fearsome bully of a headmistress. The saving grace for Matilda is her form teacher, Miss Honey, who admires her brains and encourages her intellect and her imagination. When Matilda learns that Miss Honey has also been a victim of Miss Trunchbull’s evil ways—and, what’s more, that Miss...

American Spelling Book, The

American Spelling Book, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
186 words

...spelling, and the book was just one of his efforts to achieve this. The main part of it does not differ much in content from the typical spelling-books and primers of the period, but it is preceded by an ‘Analysis of Sounds in the English Language’, and was influential in the establishment of standard American spelling and punctuation. Some editions carried a portrait of Webster, so crudely engraved that it made him look like a porcupine; it is said to have frightened many child readers from their...

Poland, Marguerite

Poland, Marguerite   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
305 words

...of the mid- 20th century . Her volumes of short stories The Mantis and the Moon ( 1979 ) and The Wood-ash Stars ( 1983 ) were deservedly the only books to be awarded the Percy FitzPatrick Prize for South African English children's books in the first ten years after its establishment. Drawing on her childhood in the eastern Cape and her knowledge of African languages and culture (in which she is academically qualified), she wrote stories about the creatures of the bush in which they were characterized as indigenous people. Her prose—poetical, and with...

Montessori, Maria

Montessori, Maria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
299 words

...own. At first her reformed system was designed for children of three to six years old; by 1916 it had been adapted to suit older children in elementary (primary) school. Her ideas spread around the world, although they were opposed in Italy by the conventional education establishment. Montessori traveled the globe, advising on the founding of new schools, including those in India and China, and spent long periods in America. At the end of the 20th century she became the first woman to be depicted on Italian currency. Ann Lawson...

Fénelon, François

Fénelon, François   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
384 words

...François ( 1651–1715 ), French author of the first novel for youngsters, Les aventures de Télémaque (The Adventures of Telemachus, 1699 ). From a noble family, François de Salignac de la Mothe Fénelon was ordained in 1677 and was the director of the New Catholics Establishment ( 1679–1689 ) for converted Protestant girls; he is remembered for his pedagogic treatise De l’éducation des filles ( On Girls’ Education , 1687 ). Chosen to be a tutor to the grandchildren of Louis XIV , he used fictional texts to increase the academic and moral impact of...

McCaffrey, Anne

McCaffrey, Anne   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
326 words

...best-known work for young adults, encapsulates several of McCaffrey's favorite themes. They feature a young woman named Menolly, who flees a harsh family situation where she is little more than a drudge and makes a new place for herself in the world. Menolly fights the establishment that tells her a young woman cannot pursue a musical career and eventually triumphs. Her heroines exist most comfortably outside the strictures of the traditional societies in which most of them are raised, eventually finding their place as gadflies or exiles. McCaffrey's...

Masterman Ready; or, the Wreck of the Pacific

Masterman Ready; or, the Wreck of the Pacific (1841–2)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
282 words

...of the Pacific , recovered from his injury, arrives in the nick of time to save the family; but Ready dies, murmuring ‘Poor little Tommy; don’t let him know that he was the cause of my death.’ Volume I of the first edition, which was illustrated, took the story as far as the establishment of a home on the island. The second and third volumes appeared the next year. A second edition was printed in 1851 , but the book did not become widely popular until the 1870s, when boys’ adventure stories were thoroughly fashionable. In the novel Marryat abandoned the...

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