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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., The A term long used to denote in particular the established church of england , but now a popular designation for the group or class of people who have authority within a society, especially, in Britain, those who control not only the Church of England but the government, the civil service and the armed forces. It has a somewhat derogatory significance associated with reaction, privilege and ‘stuffiness’. By the ‘Establishment’ I do not mean only the centres of official power – though they are certainly part of it – but rather the whole matrix...

establishment book

establishment book   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
111 words

... book ‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm, both civil and military, maintained at the expense of the sovereign or state. These will include officers of the Admiralty, of fortified towns, fortresses (such as the Tower of London), royal palaces, forests, and Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster. They may well also include Royal Household accounts ( see royal household accounts ). Such books are usually...

establishment

establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Original Shakespearean Pronunciation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...establishment > stablishment ...

Establishment, the

Establishment, the   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

..., the a group in a society exercising power and influence over matters of policy or taste, and seen as resisting change. The term is recorded intermittently from the 1920s, but in British English derives its current use from an article by the journalist Henry Fairlie in the Spectator of 1955...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of London Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

..., The An ironically named club founded in 1961 by Peter Cook ( 1937–95 ) and Nicholas Luard ( 1937–2004 ). Based at 18 Greek Street, Soho , the Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-establishment satire boom of that era. It closed in 1964...

Establishment, The

Establishment, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...exercised … the ‘Establishment’ can be seen at work in the activities of, not only the Prime Minister, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Earl Marshal, but of such lesser mortals as the Chairman of the Arts Council, the Director-General of the BBC, and even the editor of the Times Literary Supplement , not to mention dignitaries like Lady Violet Bonham Carter . henry fairlie : in The Spectator ( 23 September 1955 ) In the early 1960s, Peter Cook 's ironically named London club The Establishment became a hot-bed of the anti-Establishment satire boom of...

establishment book

establishment book  

Reference type:
Overview Page
‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ...
Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’. Meanwhile, the establishment forces had set up a counterpart in the metropolis, King's College, which retained Anglican affiliations and stressed the crucial importance of religious values while also...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...his account, and who further perpetuated notions of Cook the enlightener in an influential biography, The Life of Captain James Cook ( 1788 ). Dissent and especially *Unitarianism played a major role in the Welsh renaissance. Rational Dissenting hostility to church establishments found strongly sympathetic resonances in Wales where between 1727 and 1870 not a single Welsh-speaking cleric was appointed to the episcopate. Welsh Enlightenment also had cultural and especially linguistic dimensions which found no counterpart in Rational Dissent across...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...rates for the upkeep of church buildings and churchyards, a right much changed and eroded in the nineteenth century. The intrinsically problematical character of Warburton's analysis—which he had insisted was rooted in the order of nature—is underscored by the ways in which establishment elsewhere in Britain and Ireland was realized. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland, descending from the sixteenth-century Reformation, was governed (again under the King, who adhered to different religions north and south of the border) through a hierarchy of mixed lay and...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...created by the founders of New France in bestowing privileges on the Roman Catholic Church. Thus, under the terms of the 1791 Act, the Crown was authorized to devote a seventh of the lands not yet allocated to European settlers to the maintenance of clergy ‘according to the establishment of the Church of England’. This association between British rule and the advancement of the Church of England gathered pace in the wake of the French Revolution, the de-Christianizing rhetoric of which appeared to confirm the view that the traditional political and social...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...distribution grew, it became easier to find them. Books could be bought, hired, or borrowed either from commercial establishments and institutions or from individuals. The humblest literature— *almanacs , *ballads , chap-books, and other forms of *street literature —could be purchased from the itinerant pedlars and chapmen who travelled the countryside selling trinkets, gifts, household goods, and toys. Even the most prosperous establishments stocked items other than books, for book-selling alone was rarely sufficient to make a decent living, and not all the...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as ‘a popular though far less useful application of the Institution’. The expenditure of public funds on creating and maintaining collections that were predominantly scientific and ethnographic in nature was not welcomed by connoisseurs and artists whose first desire was the establishment of a National Gallery of Art. The notion of a gallery that could educate artists, impress foreigners, and definitively answer the aspersions cast against the taste of the British public, had been advanced periodically through the century. However, development of a national...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...according to classical precedent. Boulton saw his factory as a ‘Temple of the Vulcanian Arts’. Besides manufacturing toys and Sheffield plate on a large scale, he started in the late 1760s to produce high-quality ormolu and silverware, the latter greatly stimulated by the establishment of an Assay Office in Birmingham in 1773 , largely through his efforts. Wedgwood named his new factory ‘Etruria’, on the generally but mistakenly held belief that the Etruscans made the finest antique vases. By selling ‘Vases, Urns and other ornaments after the Etruscan,...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...centres (theatres, race- tracks, ballrooms, and the like), and on marketing the pleasures of shopping. Fashionable London in particular became a customer's paradise: it was mainly for the shops that Jane *Austen loved to come up to town. The late Georgian age saw the establishment of such famous West End shops as Lock's the hatters, Hawkes the gentleman's outfitters, Asprey, specializing in dressing-cases and silverware, Fortnum and Mason—and their nearby rivals, Jackson's—for food, Hatchard's the booksellers, and even Hamley's toyshop, to say nothing...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from late October until Christmas. Here was an ideal concentration of audience and purchasing power, a community much given to tattle, which incidentally served to document more musical gossip for future historians than was common at the time. For its entertainment a local establishment of musicians was joined by visiting celebrities, aspirants, and protégés. George Bridgetower , 11-year-old ‘son of an African prince’, soon to be taken up by the Prince of Wales and to join Beethoven in the ‘Kreutzer’ Sonata's first performance, earned 200 guineas for a...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and diversity of organic life. There was a shift from a static natural history to a history of nature, one that sought a genetic account of the development of the present order from the past. The Scottish natural philosopher James *Hutton played a major role in the establishment of another new science, geology, arguing in his Theory of the Earth ( 1795 ) that earth history showed ‘no vestige of a beginning—no prospect of an end’. This concept of ‘deep time’ (as it is now called) provided an explanatory framework for the study of the processes by...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...but made even more galling by the work's extraordinary scale and long period of gestation—left the artist badly out of pocket. They also came to confirm Barry's increasing self-mythologization as a lone artist fighting heroically against a corrupted and unsympathetic artistic establishment. The kind of self-mythologization, which offered an embittered mirror-image of more dominant narratives of artistic celebrity, was to be shared by William Blake . But while the Society of Artists paintings stood as monolithic testaments to Barry's genius, Blake exalted...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thanks to the long-established tradition of Scottish folk scholarship, had managed to become a literary celebrity without relinquishing his political independence or raffish ways. One imagines that Clare longed similarly to be able to get away with writing a pungent, anti-establishment satire like Burns's ‘Holy Willy’. Another favourite hero and Clare persona was the plebeian prizefighter Jack Randall , whose brawn had defied all comers and whose pugilistic skills had been eagerly sought after by aristocrats like Lord *Byron . The latter Clare admired most...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...new knowledges, alongside work in already established prose fields such as *biography , *autobiography , and *novels [31] . Yet their summary judgements on these books encouraged the accusation that, instead of allowing readers to ‘think for themselves’, the new reviewing establishment was imperiously imposing its own opinions (whether *Whig or *Tory ) on an unsuspecting public. A turning-point in the history of British reviewing culture developed in the early 1780s. Writers for the Whiggish Monthly and Tory Critical reviews had expressed their...

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