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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Cambridge English

Cambridge English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Cambridge English . A name for English literature as taught at the U. of Cambridge since the establishment in 1912 of the Edward VII Chair of English Literature, whose first incumbent was Arthur Quiller-Couch : ‘Eventually an English Tripos [final honours degree examination] was proposed and agreed to in 1917 , when, it was remarked, many of the dons who might have opposed it were away at the war. The ensuing Golden Age of Cambridge English has been widely commemorated in myth and memoir’ ( Bernard Bergonzi , Exploding English , 1990 ). Major figures...

Plagiarism

Plagiarism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...insofar as educational institutions invite students to model themselves on others, a degree of plagiarism and pastiche are built into the acquiring of creative skills. The concept of plagiarism as a serious legal offence became clear-cut with the growth of printing and the establishment of authors and publishers as people and institutions with property rights. See derivative quotation . ...

Orwell, George

Orwell, George (1903–50)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Orwell, George ( 1903–50 ) . Pen name of Eric Arthur Blair , English novelist, journalist, and political thinker. The adoption in 1933 of the pen name, taken from the River Orwell in East Anglia, marked his transformation from a member of the establishment of the British Empire into a social, political, and literary radical. He was born in Montihari, Bengal, India, the son of a British civil servant, and educated at Eton (where Aldous Huxley was one of his masters). From there he went in 1922 to serve in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, but...

Social Networking Sites

Social Networking Sites   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Social Networking Sites ( SNS , Social Networking Services ) . Sites or services which facilitate the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal relationships through online platforms. Individuals use SNSs to befriend, follow, ‘like’, or form groups with others, with individual ties hence leading to the construction of larger social formations. These networks can be ego-centred or shaped around perceived mutual interests in people, organizations, and/or events. For example, one of the most popular SNS networks, Facebook, facilitates personal...

Hebrew

Hebrew   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... a cooperative Israeli farming community, sabra a native-born Israeli. English in Hebrew The lexical and semantic influence of English on Israeli Hebrew has been considerable. During British rule in Palestine ( 1917–48 ), English was an official language. Following the establishment of Israel in 1948 , the influence of English on Hebrew continued through American Jewish immigration, various English-language periodicals (notably the Jerusalem Post ), and English-language motion pictures and television programmes (though most are subtitled in Hebrew)....

Spengler, Oswald

Spengler, Oswald (1880–1936)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
697 words

...the two world wars. Most of Spengler's writings other than the Decline focus on contemporary German politics. In “Prussianism and Socialism” ( 1919 ), he argues that the two extreme poles of German politics, the conservatives and the socialists, have a similar aim: the establishment of a strong state designed to further the welfare of its people. Every nation within a larger historical culture (e.g., “Faustian,” “Magian,” etc.), Spengler claims, has a spirit that must be the basis of its government, and this fact ought to unite the two opposing...

Shaw, George Bernard

Shaw, George Bernard (1856–1950)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...accent and usage. Shaw’s knowledge of phonetics and views on literacy led him to demand a rational system of spelling which would follow the sounds of English and reduce time wasted by traditional orthography. Having campaigned for spelling reform , he left a bequest for the establishment of a suitable new alphabet reflecting ‘pronunciation to resemble that recorded of His Majesty our late King George V and sometimes described as Northern English’. A system was devised into which the play Androcles and the Lion ( 1912 ) was transcribed (published in 1962...

South-East Asian English

South-East Asian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and Vietnam. In the first group, students in English-medium schools were not only taught English but learned other subjects through it; they were expected to use English in the playground, and there were often penalties for using anything else. Such education began with the establishment of the Penang Free School in 1816 and the Singapore Free School in 1823 . English-medium education was the path to better-paid employment and in some cases to higher education leading to the professions. As a consequence, English became a prestige language among the élite....

Prefix

Prefix   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...do not. They usually occur singly ( un - in unhappy, re - in re-write ), but sometimes occur in pairs: un -, re -, in unremarried not married again; anti -, dis -, in antidisestablishment . In these examples, both prefixes are productive (that is, married and establishment are independent base words), but pairing is commonly the addition of a productive to a non-productive prefix: productive in - to non-productive re - in irredeemable (no * deemable ); in - added to con - in inconclusive (no * clusive ). Sometimes, the same prefix may...

neurosemiotics

neurosemiotics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
747 words

...developmental kinesics, and apraxia ( Nespoulous , Perron , and Lecours , eds., 1986 ). Moreover, an increasing concern for the context of communicative instances called for a broadening of the theoretical and methodological scope of neurolinguistics, as well as the establishment of subspecialties that are clearly semiotic without being linguistic, such as, for instance, research dealing with the decoding of the human face and its rich repertory of signs. As knowledge of the architectures and functions of the brain progresses, the correlation of...

Language Change

Language Change   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Changes in pronunciation were a primary interest of 19c comparative philologists who studied the historical relationships among groups of languages such as the Indo-European language family , which includes english ; french ; german ; greek ; latin , and sanskrit . The establishment of regular correspondences among sets of sounds enabled them to reconstruct genetic relationships and the shifts responsible for the present differentiation of languages and dialects : for example, a sound change which shifted /p/ to /f/ in some of the indo-european...

African English

African English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,993 words

...African English (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe, with South Africa as a special case because of its history and ethnic diversity). In the second sense, the term is open to two further interpretations: as either all forms of English since the establishment of trading posts in the 17c, including pidgins and creoles, or only the forms spoken and written by educated Black Africans after some territories were administered by the British (such as Ghana and Nigeria) and/or settled by the British (such as Kenya and Zimbabwe). If the...

American English

American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,936 words

...history of the variety falls into three periods, whose dates correspond to political and social events with important consequences for the language: (1) The Colonial Period , during which a distinctive AmE was gestating. (2) The National Period , which saw its birth, establishment, and consolidation. (3) The International Period , during which it has come increasingly under foreign influence and has exerted influence on other varieties of English and on other languages. The Colonial Period ( 1607–1776 ). English colonization of the Americas came relatively...

MukaŘovskÝ, Jan

MukaŘovskÝ, Jan (1891–1975)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,090 words

...connections between structuralist aesthetics and the principles of dialectical materialism as in his 1949 essay “Kam směřuje dnešni teorie uměni?” (The Direction of Contemporary Theory of Art). Later, after the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia and the subsequent establishment of Marxism as the official doctrine, Mukařovský reached the opposite conclusion in his essay “Ke kritice strukturalismu v nasí literární vědě” (On the Critique of Structuralism in Our Literary Studies, 1951 ), in which he praises the “great example and brotherly support of...

narrative structures

narrative structures   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,502 words
Illustration(s):
2

...The notion of the contract introduces semantic content and rigor into a vague diagram. With this tool, it is possible to interpret the structure of any narrative plot from the perspective of the establishment and breaking of a contract. Indeed, all the units that articulate the contract or the agreement freely made govern narrative development: the establishment of the contract, the suspension, the reestablishment, the execution, the completion, or the breaking of the contract. Polar changes in the status of the contract, from negative to positive or the...

polysystem theory

polysystem theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,521 words

...Once a model (or its features) enters the system's repertoire and becomes stabilized through canonization and imitation, it ceases to be a primary type and becomes a secondary one. This is a distinction between innovation and conservation, the latter leading to the establishment of normative features for texts so that deviations are regarded as shocking or as tending to produce inferior texts. Traditional models of genre provide a useful instance of how models become secondary: the model for dramatic tragedy established by Aristotle in the Poetics ,...

Slang

Slang   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,219 words

...and serves much the same purpose. Like stylish clothing and modes of popular entertainment, effective slang must be new, appealing, and able to gain acceptance in a group quickly. Nothing is more damaging to status in the group than using old slang. Counterculture or counter-establishment groups often find a common vocabulary unknown outside the group a useful way to keep information secret or mysterious. Slang is typically cultivated among people in society who have little real political power (like adolescents, college students, and enlisted personnel in the...

China English

China English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,221 words

...and scientific purposes. The literal translation for ‘China English’ is Zhōngguó yīngyǔ in Hanyu pinyin (romanization of Putonghua, officially used in China, Singapore, and Malaysia). Pidgin English Contact between the English and Chinese languages dates from the establishment of a British trading post in 1640 in Guangzhou (Kwangchow, Canton), where pidgin English developed in the 18c. This was a trade jargon of the ports, now known technically as Chinese Pidgin English and China Coast Pidgin . Influenced by an earlier Cantonese Pidgin...

structure

structure   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,894 words

...make the need for reassessing the definitions of structure even more critical. Structure as relations among relata—a subject that brings to mind the signans and signatum of the Stoics and the signified and signifier of Ferdinand de Saussure —was pursued in the establishment of structural semantics by Algirdas Julien Greimas . In his view, a relation to another element defines the meaning of each individual element. By extension, structuring is then seen as perceiving differences and, moreover, organizing. This brings the issue into the direct...

Examining in English

Examining in English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,859 words

...provision of tests by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge of ‘the elements of a plain English education’. Two bodies were set up, the Oxford Delegacy and the Cambridge Syndicate , which remain central to the British tradition of examining by independent bodies. Their establishment lent weight to the existing external examinations of the University of London , administered for its own matriculating purposes. In 1903 the Joint Matriculation Board and in 1953 the Associated Examining Board were added, and the five boards became responsible for...

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