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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,750 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...both there and in Scotland necessitated policies which diverged significantly from those employed in England itself, for instance the state‐sponsored dissolution of Irish landlord class after 1870 . The 20th century has seen the loss of some areas (the Irish Republic), the establishment of satellite government in another (Northern Ireland), and the delegation of powers to regional offices in Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. More recently Wales and Scotland have both been given assemblies with differing degrees of legislative power. ‘Central government’ means...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,317 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... Localized research has challenged the ways in which national history has been viewed. The county format was also used by the Hodder and Stoughton series of landscape histories, under Hoskins's editorship. A purely practical reason for favouring the county unit was the establishment of county record offices ; the bulk of the archives, outside those of the major national collections, are housed together, whereas those of neighbouring counties are held in other county towns. Yet for many regional studies the county is not a satisfactory unit; for instance,...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,750 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...combined with that of antiquities. Meanwhile, an interest in urban history, and to a lesser extent in the history of rural parishes, was beginning to grow. The 19th century saw a flowering of the antiquarian tradition, with the publication of many substantial works and the establishment of numerous record societies. However, the social backgrounds of the writers meant that, although they did much scholarly work on manorial and ecclesiastical history, and on the genealogies of the landed families, they largely ignored the history of ordinary people. In the...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,014 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ended up making financial losses, for it was difficult to oversee the work and few products could be sold. In the second decade of the 18th century the Society for the Propagation (later Promotion) of Christian Knowledge (SPCK), founded in 1698 , began a campaign for the establishment of workhouses in market towns and the larger rural parishes up and down the country under managers who would employ the poor in useful work. In 1723 an Act gave belated recognition to this movement, authorizing the combination of parishes, if necessary, and empowering vestry...

Education

Education   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,282 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Acts of 1833 and 1842 ) in order to provide two hours of schooling six days a week for their child workers aged 9 to 13. The numerous private schools were often ephemeral, many of them dismissed contemptuously as ‘dame schools’, for they were little more than childminding establishments, though the more successful ones were listed as ‘private academies’ in trade and commercial directories . The emergence of a sizeable middle class created a demand for superior private schools, especially for girls. The Churches were active in promoting both day proprietary...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,193 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Welsh counties the JPs apparently preferred to allow begging rather than court unpopularity by demanding that rates be levied. A mixture of magisterial pressure and the need for parishes to cope with the dearth years of 1630–1 and 1647–50 made for the near‐universal establishment of parish relief by 1660 . From this date, the duty of supervising the Poor Law in the parishes must have taken over a large part of an active magistrate's time. But the Old Poor Law was essentially a system of parish relief, operated by overseers whose policy in the parish...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,095 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and it is true that the state in 1688 restored the old pattern of chartered and unchartered towns in all their variety, and that no major changes were made until the 19th century. However, piecemeal improvements under Acts of Parliament were numerous, especially in the establishment of improvement commissions from 1725 ; these enjoyed wide powers to raise money and to provide services, and in consequence corporate towns acquired a valuable supplementary authority, while unincorporated towns acquired a vital means of self‐government. As a result,...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,496 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Kenefick , Red Scotland: The Rise and Fall of the Radical Left, c.1872 to 1932 ( 2007 ). The extent of prescriptive or polemical writing reflects the lack of a common ground among the Scots (taught English history as their own until recently), the lack of a large academic establishment, and maybe the combative spirit of the Scots. Given this situation, most of the older amateur local histories in the antiquarian tradition, by an assortment of ministers, middle‐class professionals, and the self‐educated, would hardly be worth rescuing from a conflagration,...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,921 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...values as the basis for the construction of a distinctive Irish identity in the modern world. Therefore, within this colonial context, the Irish past never entered totally into history, because it never passed fully out of politics. This quickening of interest encouraged the establishment of libraries, the publication of source materials (especially in translation), and the detailed mapping, recording, and collection of antiquities. By the 1870s a national museum, a national library, and a record office had all been established, and Ireland also possessed a...

Place-Names

Place-Names   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,692 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...names, such as Welsh and Cornish formations with tref and tre , are of post‐Roman date. Some are certainly medieval, because (as with Irish Bally‐ and Manx Balla‐ names) they have post‐Norman Conquest personal or family names as qualifiers. In Celtic‐speaking countries the establishment of distinctions between the earliest names and those of medieval origin is a fraught exercise which impinges on feelings about ethnic identity. Manx people, for instance, do not like to be told that many of their Gaelic names date from after rather than before the Viking...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,326 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of county record offices in many parts of England, making accessible much new archival material, encouraged the local and regional approach which has been so important since the Second World War. The expansion of the national higher education system and in particular the establishment of university departments of economic history brought many new scholars into the field. By 1953 there were sufficient of these to launch the British Agricultural History Society and its journal, the Agricultural History Review , which contains an annual bibliography of...

provost

provost   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
49 words

...1 In Scotland, the head of a municipal corporation or burgh ; cf. the English mayor. 2 In the Church of England , the head of a chapter of a cathedral founded in the 19th or 20th century; cf. the dean of older establishments. 3 The head of a college...

Burghal Hidage

Burghal Hidage   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
78 words

... King Alfred of Wessex at the time of the Danish invasions. The document lists the burhs , or fortified places, in a clockwise order, starting in the east. An area of land, measured in hides , was allocated to each stronghold. See D. H. Hill , ‘ The Burghal Hidage: The Establishment of a Text ’, Medieval Archaeology , 13...

Dyos, H. J.

Dyos, H. J. (1921–78)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
67 words

...H. J. ( 1921–78 ) Professor of Urban History in the Department of Economic History at the University of Leicester, and the leading figure in the establishment of urban history as a discipline in the 1960s and 1970s. His Victorian Suburb: A Study of the Growth of Camberwell ( 1961 ) is an exemplary study. With Michael Wolff , he edited The Victorian City: Images and Realities (2 vols, 1973...

hotel

hotel   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
88 words

...was known at first simply as ‘The Hotel’, but it took the name of the Royal Clarence Hotel when it was extended to its present form in 1827 . Margate (Kent) had a ‘New Inn, Tavern, and Hotel’ by 1774 , but the term remained rare before 1800 . In the 19th century only large establishments were described as hotels, but in the second half of the 20th century the term passed into widespread use among smaller...

nobility

nobility   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
74 words

...The term was originally applied to all ranks above commoners, so as to include earls , barons , knights , and esquires . The establishment of the House of Lords created a clear distinction between the hereditary nobility (the peerage) and lower ranks, but in the 17th century the gentry were still thought of as noble. By the 19th century the exclusion of the gentry from the nobility led to the use of the inclusive term aristocracy...

Premonstratensians

Premonstratensians   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
131 words

...by visitors appointed by an annual general chapter . This system ensured common standards of liturgy, dress, conduct, accommodation, food, etc. The heyday of the order was in the 12th century. Afterwards, there were few new foundations and little expansion of existing establishments. All were dissolved in the late 1530s. The largest houses included Bayham (Sussex), Dryburgh (near Melrose—the first and most important of the Premonstratensian houses in Scotland), Easby (Yorkshire), Egglestone (Durham), Leiston (Suffolk), Shap (Cumbria), and Titchfield...

Cluniacs

Cluniacs   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
194 words

...Priory (Yorkshire) about 1090 , from which sprang Monk Bretton ( 1154 , later Benedictine); Roger Bigod endowed Thetford (Norfolk) in 1103–4 ; and Gervase Paganel founded Dudley (Worcestershire) in 1160 . The rest of the 36 Cluniac priories in England were small establishments. Only three Cluniac houses were built in Scotland and none at all in Wales and...

libraries, public

libraries, public   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
266 words

...of a large authority usually forms a substantial section of the public library. These contain valuable collections of all the published works relating to a locality, together with maps and plans, photographs , newspapers , ephemera , and tape recordings. Before the establishment of local record offices , these local history libraries acted as record repositories. Some of the borough libraries in the large metropolitan districts still have an archive collection. See W. A. Munford , Penny Rate: Aspects of British Library History, 1850–1950 ...

constable

constable   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
409 words

...of lists of alehouses for licensing at the brewster sessions . Surviving constables’ accounts in local record offices and the records of quarter sessions reveal the variety of tasks that fell to the constable during his year of office. The office was replaced by the establishment of a national police force in the mid‐19th...

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