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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

war establishment

war establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...establishment the level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in...

peace establishment

peace establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...establishment the authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in...

National Military Establishment

National Military Establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Military Establishment an organization created by the National Security Act of 1947 , comprised of the heads of the armed forces departments, and responsible for coordinating and responding to defense issues after World War II . The CIA and the National Security Council were created by the same...

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera A joint Anglo-Australian project established in 1946 , the Long Range Weapons Establishment was in part a reaction to the experience of German V weapons used against London in 1945 , and was conceived within a context of increasing Cold War tensions. It was also established on the assumption that a joint Commonwealth defence policy was possible after 1945 . A testing range was established at Woomera, in South Australia, which, at 1250 miles in length, became the largest land testing range in the Western world. A...

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A joint Anglo-Australian project established in 1946, the Long Range Weapons Establishment was in part a reaction to the experience of German V weapons used against London in 1945, and ...
Lublin Committee

Lublin Committee   Reference library

Keith Sword

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...be transformed into a ‘Provisional Government of the Polish Republic’. It was this sham ‘government’, headed by Bierut, which formed the basis for the Provisional Government of National Unity recognized by the UK and the USA on 5 July 1945 . Keith Sword Kersten, K. , The Establishment of Communist Rule in Poland, 1943–1948 (Oxford, 1991). Rozek, E. , Allied Wartime Diplomacy. A Pattern in Poland (London,...

Itagaki Seishiro, General

Itagaki Seishiro, General (1885–1948)   Reference library

Ian Nish

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...attaché in China. By 1930 he had been promoted to chief of staff of the Kwantung Army in which capacity he plotted, along with Colonel Ishiwara Kanji , the Manchurian Incident which was planned to give Japan greater control over the area ( see Manchukuo ). After the establishment of Manchukuo, in whose creation he was again a key figure, he became senior adviser in the military administration. Following a period as divisional commander, he joined the first cabinet of Prince Konoe as war minister in 1937 . When Japan became involved from July 1937 ...

Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories

Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the name of the king, Victor Emmanuel III , and once Italy became a co-belligerent in October 1943 it operated only in combat zones. AMGOT had some difficulties in north-west Italy at the end of the war when the First French Army refused to withdraw and frustrated AMGOT's establishment there. Roosevelt resolved the situation by refusing the French any more military supplies until they withdrew, which they did on 10 June 1945 . There were also some difficulties in Trieste , which Tito 's forces had occupied, but this was also solved eventually. Having a...

Chiang, Madame

Chiang, Madame (1897–2003)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...an important role in the resolution of the Sian incident ( see Chiang Kai-Shek ) acquired new prominence. She organized work on behalf of China's war orphans ( see also children ), for which she received large sums of money from all over the world, and was involved in the establishment of co-operatives, war work among China's women, care for the wounded, children's education, and the rehabilitation of the homeless. In this she was greatly aided by a publicity campaign targeting official and private organizations throughout the democracies. Inevitably,...

Combined Operations

Combined Operations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Operations , British nomenclature for amphibious warfare and the first British organization to have an inter-service headquarters. Though attacks from the sea had been mounted by the British for centuries they had no establishment which specialized in amphibious warfare until the Inter-Services Training and Development Centre (ISTDC) was opened in May 1938 . This began examining the problems inherent in landing on a defended beach and prototypes of landing craft were built which proved their worth during the Norwegian campaign and at Dunkirk . In...

Dowding, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh

Dowding, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh (1882–1970)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of state for air in a personal interview. He initially refused a request to go to the USA on behalf of the ministry of aircraft production, but was eventually persuaded by Churchill . The visit was not successful, nor was his appointment to the air ministry to scrutinize air establishments, and in July 1942 he retired at his own request. Nicknamed ‘Stuffy’ from his days at the Staff College, Camberley, Dowding had an austere, withdrawn personality. His vision, necessarily, was a narrow one and he was no politician, but his dedication to his task was total. In...

Kempei

Kempei   Reference library

Louis Allen

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
814 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the normal soldier. Other ranks were volunteers, and officers were transferred from other arms and permanently assigned to the Kempei. They were trained in special schools, usually for a year, though in wartime the period was reduced to six months. There were Kempei training establishments in Tokyo and Seoul (Korea), and in 1942 a Kempei school was set up in Singapore to serve the Southern Regions. Kempei operated in static roles in Japan and in base areas in Manchuria, Korea, and north China. In the field, the organization was different (see Chart). Field...

Denmark

Denmark   Reference library

Claus Bjørn and Palle Roslyng-Jensen

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Pacifism was widespread and after the First World War a general belief in disarmament dominated Danish politics and the coalition government of social democrats and social liberals, which was led from 1929 to 1940 by Thorvald Stauning ( 1873–1942 ). The Danish military establishment was not held in high regard by the majority of the population, but the rise of the Nazis in Germany after 1933 led to a change in the attitude of the social democrats and the defence act of 1937 permitted some modernization of the Danish armed forces. But in April 1940 ...

Japanese–Soviet campaigns and relations, 1939–45

Japanese–Soviet campaigns and relations, 1939–45   Reference library

Hatano Sumio

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,487 words
Illustration(s):
2

...through diplomatic channels. Whilst the outbreak of the European war in September 1939 convinced Moscow of the need to come to an agreement with Japan. Soviet and Japanese diplomats in Moscow arranged a cease-fire that became effective on 16 September, and agreed to the establishment of a joint committee to deal with demarcation of the border between Outer Mongolia and Manchukuo. The total killed in this first Japanese–Soviet clash reached a total of 30,000. As Japanese military operations bogged down in China and relations with the USA deteriorated...

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia   Reference library

Paul Latawski

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... fall of France in June 1940 led to the transfer of Beneš's political activities to London and by the summer of 1941 he was leading a Provisional government of Czechoslovakia which received full recognition from the Allied powers. The diplomacy of Beneš aimed at the re-establishment of Czechoslovakia after the war. A major success was the British and Free French repudiation in August– September 1942 of the Munich agreement and its territorial changes. Beneš also made some half-hearted attempts at confederation with Poland in 1942 until Soviet...

engineers

engineers   Reference library

William Jackson

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,360 words
Illustration(s):
5

...by the time the requirement was recognized. (e) Bridging Significant strides were made during the war in speeding up military bridging. The greatest success came with the invention of the British Bailey bridge by Sir Donald Bailey of the Military Engineering Experimental Establishment at Christchurch, Dorset (Figure 5). The Bailey bridge girders were constructed from a series of identical steel lattice panels held together by high-tensile pins at their four corners. Each girder could be doubled or tripled for extra length and strength, and could be given up...

Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere

Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere   Reference library

Ian Nish

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...to find their true place (in the world)’. In this speech Tōjō seemed to be reflecting ideas formulated by a body called the Total War Research Institute which had close relations with the army and the cabinet. In January 1942 the institute prepared ‘the draft plan for the establishment of the Co-prosperity Sphere’, which seemed to influence the thinking of the government. Here for the first time we have an attempt at a definition of the sphere. The document divided it into three areas: the Inner Sphere (Japan, Manchukuo, North China, the lower Yangtse...

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Richard Crampton

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...in eastern Macedonia and most of western Thrace, though much of Macedonia, including Salonika, remained under German control. The Bulgarians had always regarded Macedonia as theirs by right. Their rule therefore saw the introduction of Bulgarian education, including the establishment of a university in Skoplje. However, they overplayed their hand: excessive centralization, graft, and corruption eventually made Sofia's emissaries as unpopular in Macedonia as their Serbian predecessors had been. In Thrace there was not even an initial honeymoon. By ...

China

China   Reference library

Lyman P. Van Slyke

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,716 words
Illustration(s):
4

...communist rule bore some resemblance to that of the nationalists. Both were one-party, Leninist regimes dominated by powerful and highly symbolic leaders. Like the KMT, the CCP was the dominating leg of the tripod which also included its government apparatus and its military establishment. The party exercised control through its own political rules and through interlocking membership at all levels. Factions also existed within the CCP, but they were much less pervasive and divisive than in the KMT; by 1940 at the latest, Mao Tse-tung's leadership was...

diplomacy

diplomacy   Reference library

Z. A. B. Zeman

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...placed neutral countries become meeting-points as well as escape routes. Switzerland and Sweden provided the meeting-ground for diplomats as well as spies in the Second World War; while Portugal became the gate through which refugees streamed out of Europe. The establishments of the foreign ministries in both Allied and Axis countries had grown everywhere before the war; the ministries became clearing houses for many different kinds of foreign business, propaganda, and economic warfare among them. The diplomats were often consulted on the...

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