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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’. Meanwhile, the establishment forces had set up a counterpart in the metropolis, King's College, which retained Anglican affiliations and stressed the crucial importance of religious values while also...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...his account, and who further perpetuated notions of Cook the enlightener in an influential biography, The Life of Captain James Cook ( 1788 ). Dissent and especially *Unitarianism played a major role in the Welsh renaissance. Rational Dissenting hostility to church establishments found strongly sympathetic resonances in Wales where between 1727 and 1870 not a single Welsh-speaking cleric was appointed to the episcopate. Welsh Enlightenment also had cultural and especially linguistic dimensions which found no counterpart in Rational Dissent across...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...rates for the upkeep of church buildings and churchyards, a right much changed and eroded in the nineteenth century. The intrinsically problematical character of Warburton's analysis—which he had insisted was rooted in the order of nature—is underscored by the ways in which establishment elsewhere in Britain and Ireland was realized. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland, descending from the sixteenth-century Reformation, was governed (again under the King, who adhered to different religions north and south of the border) through a hierarchy of mixed lay and...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...created by the founders of New France in bestowing privileges on the Roman Catholic Church. Thus, under the terms of the 1791 Act, the Crown was authorized to devote a seventh of the lands not yet allocated to European settlers to the maintenance of clergy ‘according to the establishment of the Church of England’. This association between British rule and the advancement of the Church of England gathered pace in the wake of the French Revolution, the de-Christianizing rhetoric of which appeared to confirm the view that the traditional political and social...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...distribution grew, it became easier to find them. Books could be bought, hired, or borrowed either from commercial establishments and institutions or from individuals. The humblest literature— *almanacs , *ballads , chap-books, and other forms of *street literature —could be purchased from the itinerant pedlars and chapmen who travelled the countryside selling trinkets, gifts, household goods, and toys. Even the most prosperous establishments stocked items other than books, for book-selling alone was rarely sufficient to make a decent living, and not all the...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as ‘a popular though far less useful application of the Institution’. The expenditure of public funds on creating and maintaining collections that were predominantly scientific and ethnographic in nature was not welcomed by connoisseurs and artists whose first desire was the establishment of a National Gallery of Art. The notion of a gallery that could educate artists, impress foreigners, and definitively answer the aspersions cast against the taste of the British public, had been advanced periodically through the century. However, development of a national...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...according to classical precedent. Boulton saw his factory as a ‘Temple of the Vulcanian Arts’. Besides manufacturing toys and Sheffield plate on a large scale, he started in the late 1760s to produce high-quality ormolu and silverware, the latter greatly stimulated by the establishment of an Assay Office in Birmingham in 1773 , largely through his efforts. Wedgwood named his new factory ‘Etruria’, on the generally but mistakenly held belief that the Etruscans made the finest antique vases. By selling ‘Vases, Urns and other ornaments after the Etruscan,...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...centres (theatres, race- tracks, ballrooms, and the like), and on marketing the pleasures of shopping. Fashionable London in particular became a customer's paradise: it was mainly for the shops that Jane *Austen loved to come up to town. The late Georgian age saw the establishment of such famous West End shops as Lock's the hatters, Hawkes the gentleman's outfitters, Asprey, specializing in dressing-cases and silverware, Fortnum and Mason—and their nearby rivals, Jackson's—for food, Hatchard's the booksellers, and even Hamley's toyshop, to say nothing...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from late October until Christmas. Here was an ideal concentration of audience and purchasing power, a community much given to tattle, which incidentally served to document more musical gossip for future historians than was common at the time. For its entertainment a local establishment of musicians was joined by visiting celebrities, aspirants, and protégés. George Bridgetower , 11-year-old ‘son of an African prince’, soon to be taken up by the Prince of Wales and to join Beethoven in the ‘Kreutzer’ Sonata's first performance, earned 200 guineas for a...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and diversity of organic life. There was a shift from a static natural history to a history of nature, one that sought a genetic account of the development of the present order from the past. The Scottish natural philosopher James *Hutton played a major role in the establishment of another new science, geology, arguing in his Theory of the Earth ( 1795 ) that earth history showed ‘no vestige of a beginning—no prospect of an end’. This concept of ‘deep time’ (as it is now called) provided an explanatory framework for the study of the processes by...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...but made even more galling by the work's extraordinary scale and long period of gestation—left the artist badly out of pocket. They also came to confirm Barry's increasing self-mythologization as a lone artist fighting heroically against a corrupted and unsympathetic artistic establishment. The kind of self-mythologization, which offered an embittered mirror-image of more dominant narratives of artistic celebrity, was to be shared by William Blake . But while the Society of Artists paintings stood as monolithic testaments to Barry's genius, Blake exalted...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thanks to the long-established tradition of Scottish folk scholarship, had managed to become a literary celebrity without relinquishing his political independence or raffish ways. One imagines that Clare longed similarly to be able to get away with writing a pungent, anti-establishment satire like Burns's ‘Holy Willy’. Another favourite hero and Clare persona was the plebeian prizefighter Jack Randall , whose brawn had defied all comers and whose pugilistic skills had been eagerly sought after by aristocrats like Lord *Byron . The latter Clare admired most...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...new knowledges, alongside work in already established prose fields such as *biography , *autobiography , and *novels [31] . Yet their summary judgements on these books encouraged the accusation that, instead of allowing readers to ‘think for themselves’, the new reviewing establishment was imperiously imposing its own opinions (whether *Whig or *Tory ) on an unsuspecting public. A turning-point in the history of British reviewing culture developed in the early 1780s. Writers for the Whiggish Monthly and Tory Critical reviews had expressed their...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...example of France after 1789 added a powerful element of anxiety to such claims. From the early summer of 1792 , when the first Royal Proclamation Against Seditious Writings was issued and prosecution against Paine's Rights of Man: Part the Second was inaugurated, the establishment suffered recurrent bouts of anxiety about the prospect of a political and social revolution. These anxieties were not groundless, nor should we dismiss the loyalists' campaign as mere rhetoric. Many experienced the spread of popular radical literature as deeply threatening,...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of this quarrel had been confronted and its main issue (the nature of world medieval culture) neutrally resolved, could the ‘history of English literature’ assume a professional academic form, and begin to meet the needs of the modern university. Last of the major anti-establishment scholars was Francis Douce himself. The great collection of illustrated books, manuscripts, and ephemera he left to the Bodleian Library, Oxford, helps define his notion of culture as an endlessly fascinating treasure-cabinet of discrete, expressive, but anonymous objects out...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...always revolved around the rise of disruptive new patterns of work, the *factory system , and machine-driven production. Probably fewer than 12 per cent of the British workforce was employed in factories by 1850 , and as late as 1871 the average size of a manufacturing establishment was under twenty employees. Indeed, craft and unmechanized trades were still the most numerous; there were more shoemakers than coalminers in 1851 , and coalmining was itself hardly exemplary in its use of powered machinery, relying primarily on muscle-power for the hewing...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... with Ireland in 1800 and the Catholic Relief Act of 1829 ). Nevertheless, hidden tensions between the continuance of the common law tradition and the full exercise of parliamentary sovereignty became apparent during the reign of George III . In the first place, the legal establishment took it for granted that the common law courts should remain the foundational source of regular legal development. Hence the Westminster Hall jurisdictions of *King 's Bench, *Common Pleas , and *Exchequer remained the centre of the legal universe in England until the...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the millenarian restoration of an ancient Jewish constitution and homeland. They also saw the ‘Jubilee Day’ expounded in Leviticus 25, when Moses dramatically freed the slaves and restored the alienated lands of the Hebrew tribes, as a loose revolutionary model for the re-establishment in Britain of a democratic, smallholder, agrarian republic. Many *Spenceans thus sought, in the manner of Blake, to bring about the advent of a new Jerusalem in England's ‘green and pleasant land’. Spencean utopias were scarcely disguised manifestos for revolutionary...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...small debtors in prison. Paine believed that the rich should be taxed to fund a range of social welfare reforms, and that a democratic political system would save huge amounts of money by reducing corruption, waste, and the size of the civil administration and the military establishment. His critique became a part of radical polemic in the succeeding decades. William *Cobbett , for instance, regularly denounced the government's vast patronage system which corrupted politicians, city financiers, government contractors, civil servants, officers in the armed...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on no formal techniques’. Anna Laetitia *Barbauld suggested in ‘On Romances’ ( 1773 ) that sentimental fiction was popular because ‘few can reason, but all can feel’. Here, she said, was illimitable potential: ‘Sorrow is universally felt.’ Debarred from the educational establishment and usually from a knowledge of the ancient languages, women turned their hand to a form and subject they could master by themselves. If the supposedly ‘unexacting’ requirements of the novel's language were thought to suit women's nervous systems and education, the form also...

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