View:

Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Relief sculpture

Relief sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...commonly used inside, to make pulpits, rood screens, and choir-stalls a source of visual instruction. The recurrence of relatively few outstandingly important scenes from the New Testament, together with a few from the Old Testament that were regarded as prophetic, led to the establishment of a more or less standard Christian iconography. Artists were free to make only minor variations on the pre-ordained themes, but their ingenuity resulted in clearly distinguishable national, local, and sometimes even personal styles. Reliefs at this period were often carved...

William Tell legend

William Tell legend   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
112 words

...Tell legend Stories of a skilled marksman who shot an apple off the head of his son are to be found in numerous Germanic sagas. In the late 15th century written sources began to associate such a story with the establishment of the *Swiss cantons’ alliance against *Habsburg rule. The legend developed that Tell refused to recognize the authority of the counts of Habsburg after the death of Rudolf I in 1291 , and that a representative of these rulers punished Tell by requiring him to shoot an apple off his son’s head. See also bow and arrow ; ...

Montevergine

Montevergine   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
420 words

...the time of the Schism of 1130 . So the new tendencies in spirituality arose from purely local establishments, notably at Pulsano (in the Gargano) and Montevergine, respectively founded by St John of Matera († 1139 ) and St William of Vercelli († 1142 ). In both cases, they were monasteries practising the Rule of St Benedict in its most austere form and accepting eremitism , which became heads of congregations and did not reject female establishments. According to their hagiographies, the two men met and William asked for John's advice; they are...

Camaldolese Order

Camaldolese Order   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
460 words

...Order Constituted from the hermitage of Camaldoli, founded by Romuald of Ravenna in 1023 -27 north of Arezzo, the Camaldolese Order came into being only in 1113 , when, sanctioning a period of Foundation and aggregation of establishments gradually put under the jurisdiction of Camaldoli, Paschal II formally recognised the congregation and put it under the protection of the Apostolic See. At this date the area of Camaldolese influence covered mainly Tuscany and, through Pisa , Sardinia . In the second half of the 12 th c. it extended...

Dobrava

Dobrava (977)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
162 words

... Mieszko I , then the mother of Boleslas the Brave ( Bolesław Chrobry ) and Sventoslava-Sigrid ( S̆więtoslawa-Sygryd ), queen of Sweden and Denmark . The marriage of Mieszko and Dobrava was the prelude to the christianization of Poland ( 966 ) and contributed to the establishment of a good climate in Polish-Czech relations. Medieval chroniclers credited Dobrava with bringing active support to the young Polish Christendom ; she is supposed to have founded numerous churches, notably those of the Holy Trinity and St Guy (Vitus) at Gniezno , as well as...

Pannonhalma

Pannonhalma   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
160 words

... or the king), who from the 14th c. directly appointed the abbots of Pannonhalma. Overwhelmed with favours for the first two centuries of its existence, it later suffered from the predilection of pious donors for Cistercian , Premonstratensian and then mendicant establishments. A Pannonhalmi Szent-Benedek rend története [History of the Benedictine Order of Pannonhalma], L. Erdélyi (dir.), P. Sörös (dir.), 1-7, Budapest, 1902–1916. Marie-Madeleine de...

Pignotta

Pignotta   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
130 words

...The Pignotta was one of the services of the papal almonry. This charitable establishment, which predated the arrival of the court at Avignon , took its name from the “little loaves” that were the essence of the daily distributions it made (up to 10,000); but it also served meals to several hundred poor people, and gave them clothing . It was installed at Avignon in the parish of Saint-Pierre, where it left its name to a square, but it followed the court in its movements. Its personnel consisted of an administrator, two almoners and a dozen...

San Juan de la Peña

San Juan de la Peña   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
164 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Juan de la Peña Built in c. 925 on the flanks of Mount Oroel (Huesca), the monastery of San Juan de la Peña belonged to the patrimony of the kings of Navarre . In 1025 , by the wish of Sancho the Great and Abbot Paternus, it was the first Iberian monastic establishment to accept the Cluniac reform . The influence of Cluny would be decisive in ending the relative isolation in which the church of Spain lived. Thus in 1071 San Juan de la Peña adopted the Roman ritual, destined to replace the Mozarabic liturgy which then prevailed throughout the...

San Millan de la Cogolla

San Millan de la Cogolla   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
150 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Millan de la Cogolla It was during the 10th c. that the kings of Navarre built the monastery of San Millan de la Cogolla close to the hermitage of Suso (Logroño) that held the remains of St Emiliano, evangelizer of the Rioja. Situated in a contested area, the establishment played a strategic role against Castile . Richly endowed, it safeguarded its influence by appropriating the relics of St Emiliano in 1030 . Transferred to Yuso in 1053 , soon afterwards the monastery came under Castilian rule. Its spiritual and cultural influence, nourished by the...

Prüm

Prüm   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
171 words

...The abbey of St Saviour at Prüm was founded in the diocese of Trier in 771 by an aristocrat connected with the family of Pippin the Short . The latter endowed the monastery and enlarged it. From 762 , the establishment, which housed up to 300 choir monks, benefited from the privilege of immunity and royal protection. In the 9th c. it had a flourishing school made illustrious by Abbot Regino . In 1003–1004 it rallied to the reform of Gorze . Prüm was rich in land (1530 small Estates in 893 , reduced to 119 larger ones in 1222 ). At the...

Quedlinburg

Quedlinburg   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
152 words

... was the preferred residence of King Henry I of Germany ( 919–936 ), who gave it in dowry to his wife Matilda in 929 . After the death of the king, who was buried there, the queen founded an important monastery of noblewomen there dedicated to St Servatius . The establishment took first place among the Ottonian dynastic sanctuaries and was the site of numerous assemblies in the 10th and 11th centuries. Richly endowed, legally privileged, it was reserved for the daughters of the high aristocracy and served as a house of education . The prestige...

Esztergom

Esztergom   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
151 words

...craftsmanship and commerce . During the Tatar invasion of 1241 , the royal part of the town suffered such damage that King Béla IV decided to transfer his residence to Buda ; from then on Esztergom suffered a demographic and economic decline, and only the ecclesiastical establishments continued to prosper. In the late 15th c., archbishops John Vitéz and then Thomas Bakócz nevertheless made it a great centre of the artistic and intellectual Renaissance . L. Zolnay , A középkori Esztergom [Esztergom in the Middle Ages], Budapest, 1983....

Alcobaça

Alcobaça   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
166 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and to ensure the development of lands recently taken from the Muslims. Indeed, it was mainly from the 13th c. that Cistercian colonization reached its full extent. From then on the abbey 's political and cultural role did not cease to grow. We know nothing of the original establishment, which was destroyed by the Almohades in 1190 . The present edifice (Alcobaça II) is the exact replica of Clairvaux, with the same orientation of the church, and the same arrangement of conventual buildings. The cloister of silence at the monastery of Santa Anna at...

Hospital, Hospice

Hospital, Hospice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,345 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Hospice The first hospital establishments in the West go back to the Frankish period: their existence is attested then in numerous towns . They were put under the responsibility of the Bishops but benefited from a regime of legal autonomy that allowed them freely to receive gifts and Legacies , at that time the essential part of their resources. The political and economic difficulties of the time were favourable neither to their prosperity nor to their multiplication: Carolingian capitularies mention the lamentable situation in which a number of...

Bavaria

Bavaria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
552 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a Bavarian Church was formed; the episcopal abbeys that emerged from the reorganisation dedicated themselves, like the Benedictine and canonical establishments of the 8th c., to the care of the past. The second duchy was, like the first, kept in the Empire , after the accession of the duke to the kingship ( Henry II ). Bavaria was administered as a vice-realm to which bishoprics and old religious establishments were directly subject, which, added to the early territorial peace ( 1094 ), would constitute one of the foundations of the future State. By...

Ulm

Ulm   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
206 words

...on the town led Ulm, at the urging of the guilds that governed it from 1345 , to establish a very extensive urban territory. Similarly, anxious to avoid isolation, it constantly put itself, from 1348 , at the head of urban leagues and made a great contribution to the establishment of a representation of the towns in the Empire . Between 1377 and 1446 , the seat of the parish was transferred inside the city, while the cure was moved from the abbey of Reichenau to the hospital of the Holy Spirit administered by the town. In this context, and...

Gerard of Brogne

Gerard of Brogne (959)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
209 words

...of Brogne , the Bishops and the rulers of the nascent feudal principalities, in the form of a return to the Rule of St Benedict in the interpretation of it given by Benedict of Aniane in the Carolingian period. The three principles on which it was based were the re-establishment of an abbot chosen by the monks, a strict respect for discipline and a sound management of the monastery's temporality. Gerard of Brogne was canonized by Pope Innocent II in 1131 . “ Gérard de Brogne ”, DHGE , 10, 1938, 829-832. André...

pouillé

pouillé   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
218 words

...The pouillé (a vulgar form of polyptychum , “ polyptych ”) was a statement of the dependencies of an ecclesiastical establishment, abbey or diocese : this latter category of documents is the best known and most numerous, statements of monastic goods being generally called “polyptychs” in the early Middle Ages . From the 13th c., the statement of a diocese's Benefices could be made out at the request of a Bishop on taking up office, so that he could become aware of the benefices it consisted of and prepare his pastoral Visits , sometimes also...

Richard of Saint-Vanne

Richard of Saint-Vanne (c.970–1046)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
189 words

...power of the Bishops . The movement spread in Flanders and Artois (Saint-Vaast) as well as in the diocese of Liège and in Champagne . Interference of the lay lords in the life of the monasteries was limited and their economic basis was strengthened, but the religious establishments he headed never formed a true congregation. Richard also played an important role in the spread of the Truce of God , from Flanders to Normandy . His activities were continued after his death by Abbot Poppo of Stavelot . H. Dauphin , Le Bienheureux Richard, abbé de...

Benjamin I of Alexandria

Benjamin I of Alexandria (661)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
179 words

...Alexandria (died 661 ) 38th Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria ( 622–661 ), he lived in troubled times with the end of the Persian occupation of Egypt ( 617–627 ), the return of the Byzantines under Heraclius , and finally the Arab conquest ( 637–641 ) and the permanent establishment of Islam . In 631 , Heraclius instituted Cyrus as Melkite patriarch of Alexandria and governor of Egypt: Cyrus, unable to rally the monophysite Copts to a monothelite formula, unleashed a violent persecution against them, emptied their monasteries and seized their...

View: