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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

war establishment

war establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...establishment the level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in...

peace establishment

peace establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...establishment the authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in...

establishment book

establishment book   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
111 words

... book ‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm, both civil and military, maintained at the expense of the sovereign or state. These will include officers of the Admiralty, of fortified towns, fortresses (such as the Tower of London), royal palaces, forests, and Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster. They may well also include Royal Household accounts ( see royal household accounts ). Such books are usually...

establishment of religion

establishment of religion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
412 words

... of religion . A religious organization is established when, by law, it enjoys the unique protection and support of the state and in some measure comes under its control. The term establishment comes from the law of England. Before Confederation the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England displayed many of the characteristics of a church establishment in much of what is now Canada. In New France, the Roman Catholic curé and seigneur were seen as partners in shepherding their communities. Religious orders ran schools and hospitals. Parish...

National Military Establishment

National Military Establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Military Establishment an organization created by the National Security Act of 1947 , comprised of the heads of the armed forces departments, and responsible for coordinating and responding to defense issues after World War II . The CIA and the National Security Council were created by the same...

establishment of the port

establishment of the port   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
166 words

... of the port , the interval between the time of meridian passage of the new or the full moon and the time of the following high tide . This interval which is constant for a given port is also known as the High Water Full and Change constant (HWF & C). The average interval is known as the mean high water lunitidal interval. Because the tides are governed largely by the moon, and because the time of meridian passage of the moon is later each day by about 50 minutes, it follows that, if the age of the moon and the establishment of the port are...

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera A joint Anglo-Australian project established in 1946 , the Long Range Weapons Establishment was in part a reaction to the experience of German V weapons used against London in 1945 , and was conceived within a context of increasing Cold War tensions. It was also established on the assumption that a joint Commonwealth defence policy was possible after 1945 . A testing range was established at Woomera, in South Australia, which, at 1250 miles in length, became the largest land testing range in the Western world. A...

The Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824

The Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824   Reference library

Jaime E. Rodríguez O.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,795 words

...Independence of New Spain and the Establishment of the Mexican Republic, 1808–1824 The independence of New Spain was not the result of an anticolonial struggle. Rather, it was a consequence of a great political revolution that culminated in the dissolution of the Spanish Monarchy, a world-wide political system. The movement was an integral part of the broader process that was transforming antiguo régimen societies into modern liberal nation states. The new country of Mexico that emerged from the break up of the Spanish Monarchy retained many of the shared ...

establishment of religion

establishment of religion  

A religious organization is established when, by law, it enjoys the unique protection and support of the state and in some measure comes under its control. The term establishment comes ...
establishment of the port

establishment of the port  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The interval between the time of meridian passage of the new or the full moon and the time of the following high tide. This interval which is constant for a given port is also known as the High Water ...
Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera

Long Range Weapons Establishment, Woomera  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A joint Anglo-Australian project established in 1946, the Long Range Weapons Establishment was in part a reaction to the experience of German V weapons used against London in 1945, and ...
Lublin Committee

Lublin Committee   Reference library

Keith Sword

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...be transformed into a ‘Provisional Government of the Polish Republic’. It was this sham ‘government’, headed by Bierut, which formed the basis for the Provisional Government of National Unity recognized by the UK and the USA on 5 July 1945 . Keith Sword Kersten, K. , The Establishment of Communist Rule in Poland, 1943–1948 (Oxford, 1991). Rozek, E. , Allied Wartime Diplomacy. A Pattern in Poland (London,...

Itagaki Seishiro, General

Itagaki Seishiro, General (1885–1948)   Reference library

Ian Nish

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...attaché in China. By 1930 he had been promoted to chief of staff of the Kwantung Army in which capacity he plotted, along with Colonel Ishiwara Kanji , the Manchurian Incident which was planned to give Japan greater control over the area ( see Manchukuo ). After the establishment of Manchukuo, in whose creation he was again a key figure, he became senior adviser in the military administration. Following a period as divisional commander, he joined the first cabinet of Prince Konoe as war minister in 1937 . When Japan became involved from July 1937 ...

Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories

Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the name of the king, Victor Emmanuel III , and once Italy became a co-belligerent in October 1943 it operated only in combat zones. AMGOT had some difficulties in north-west Italy at the end of the war when the First French Army refused to withdraw and frustrated AMGOT's establishment there. Roosevelt resolved the situation by refusing the French any more military supplies until they withdrew, which they did on 10 June 1945 . There were also some difficulties in Trieste , which Tito 's forces had occupied, but this was also solved eventually. Having a...

Chiang, Madame

Chiang, Madame (1897–2003)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...an important role in the resolution of the Sian incident ( see Chiang Kai-Shek ) acquired new prominence. She organized work on behalf of China's war orphans ( see also children ), for which she received large sums of money from all over the world, and was involved in the establishment of co-operatives, war work among China's women, care for the wounded, children's education, and the rehabilitation of the homeless. In this she was greatly aided by a publicity campaign targeting official and private organizations throughout the democracies. Inevitably,...

Combined Operations

Combined Operations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Operations , British nomenclature for amphibious warfare and the first British organization to have an inter-service headquarters. Though attacks from the sea had been mounted by the British for centuries they had no establishment which specialized in amphibious warfare until the Inter-Services Training and Development Centre (ISTDC) was opened in May 1938 . This began examining the problems inherent in landing on a defended beach and prototypes of landing craft were built which proved their worth during the Norwegian campaign and at Dunkirk . In...

Dowding, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh

Dowding, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh (1882–1970)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of state for air in a personal interview. He initially refused a request to go to the USA on behalf of the ministry of aircraft production, but was eventually persuaded by Churchill . The visit was not successful, nor was his appointment to the air ministry to scrutinize air establishments, and in July 1942 he retired at his own request. Nicknamed ‘Stuffy’ from his days at the Staff College, Camberley, Dowding had an austere, withdrawn personality. His vision, necessarily, was a narrow one and he was no politician, but his dedication to his task was total. In...

Kempei

Kempei   Reference library

Louis Allen

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
814 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the normal soldier. Other ranks were volunteers, and officers were transferred from other arms and permanently assigned to the Kempei. They were trained in special schools, usually for a year, though in wartime the period was reduced to six months. There were Kempei training establishments in Tokyo and Seoul (Korea), and in 1942 a Kempei school was set up in Singapore to serve the Southern Regions. Kempei operated in static roles in Japan and in base areas in Manchuria, Korea, and north China. In the field, the organization was different (see Chart). Field...

Denmark

Denmark   Reference library

Claus Bjørn and Palle Roslyng-Jensen

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Pacifism was widespread and after the First World War a general belief in disarmament dominated Danish politics and the coalition government of social democrats and social liberals, which was led from 1929 to 1940 by Thorvald Stauning ( 1873–1942 ). The Danish military establishment was not held in high regard by the majority of the population, but the rise of the Nazis in Germany after 1933 led to a change in the attitude of the social democrats and the defence act of 1937 permitted some modernization of the Danish armed forces. But in April 1940 ...

Japanese–Soviet campaigns and relations, 1939–45

Japanese–Soviet campaigns and relations, 1939–45   Reference library

Hatano Sumio

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,487 words
Illustration(s):
2

...through diplomatic channels. Whilst the outbreak of the European war in September 1939 convinced Moscow of the need to come to an agreement with Japan. Soviet and Japanese diplomats in Moscow arranged a cease-fire that became effective on 16 September, and agreed to the establishment of a joint committee to deal with demarcation of the border between Outer Mongolia and Manchukuo. The total killed in this first Japanese–Soviet clash reached a total of 30,000. As Japanese military operations bogged down in China and relations with the USA deteriorated...

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