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Overview

Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Mafjar, Khirbat Al-

Mafjar, Khirbat Al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
899 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that they had found a Christian ecclesiastical establishment. It turned out to be an Umayyad palace that was probably never completed. Its construction seems to have been abandoned rather abruptly—either because of one of the several earthquakes that affected Palestine in the middle of the eighth century or because a patron suddenly disappeared or lost interest. MAFJAR, KHIRBAT AL-. Figure 1. General view of the excavated palace . (Courtesy Pictorial Archive) There are five parts to the establishment: 1. Two-storied square castle . Roughly 70 m to the...

American Research Institute in Turkey

American Research Institute in Turkey   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
319 words

...Research Institute in Turkey . Americans have participated in the archaeological exploration of Turkey since the 1881–83 excavations at Assos in the Troad, sponsored by the Archaeological Institute of America just two years after its foundation. Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey In 1923 , archaeologists were joined by scholars in many other disciplines, including historians of all periods, political and social scientists, philologists, anthropologists, and Turcologists. By the early 1960s, it was clear that an organization was...

Undersea Exploration Society of Israel

Undersea Exploration Society of Israel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
376 words

...Exploration Society of Israel . In 1959 , hundreds of amphorae were hauled up from the sea bottom by trawler fishermen from Kibbutz Ma῾agan Mikha'el. The investigation of that rich collection of archaeological finds was the impetus for the establishment of the Undersea Exploration Society of Israel ( UESI ). The following year, the American explorer and diver Edwin Link arrived in Israel to explore the Herodian harbor at Caesarea, providing the Israeli group of navy-trained divers and the kibbutz's Elisha Linder, who had traced the provenance of the...

Starcky, Jean

Starcky, Jean (1909–1988)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
475 words

...the leading specialist in this field, and the publication of “Petra et la Nabatène” (Paris, 1964 , cols. 886–1017) contributed to his authority in the field. He collaborated with André Dupont-Sommer in studying Aramaic inscriptions (Paris, 1958 ). His participation in the establishment of the Musée Biblique de l'Institut Catholique, of Bible et Terre Sainte (later Le Monde de la Bible ), and of numerous public conferences allowed him to reconcile his scholarly pursuits with his desire for conversation with the wider world. He viewed the latter as an...

Creswell, Keppel Archibald Cameron

Creswell, Keppel Archibald Cameron (1879–1974)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
473 words

...of the subject. He later condensed and updated his magnum opus as A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture ( 1989 ). Bibliography Burns, Kristie . “ Cairo's Creswell Collection: A Legacy of Love. ” American Libraries 22 (1990): 940–944. A look at Creswell's life and the establishment of a research library from his personal library. Creswell, K. A. C. Early Muslim Architecture . 2 vols. Oxford, 1932–1940. Creswell, K. A. C. A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts, and Crafts of Islam to 1st Jan. 1960 . Cairo, 1961. Creswell, K. A. C. A Bibliography of the...

Guy, Philip Langstaffe Orde

Guy, Philip Langstaffe Orde (1885–1952)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
409 words

... Guy, Philip Langstaffe Orde ( 1885–1952 ), British archaeologist and administrator , instrumental in the establishment of both the Palestine and Israel departments of antiquities. Born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, Guy was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Oxford. After active service in World War I, he joined Leonard Woolley's expeditions to Carchemish and Amarna, where he served as ceramic specialist. In 1922 , he was appointed chief inspector of the newly established Palestine Department of Antiquities and in that position was...

Darb Zubaydah

Darb Zubaydah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,389 words

...highway. The transfer of the ῾Abbasid capital from Damascus to Baghdad In ah 132 / 750 ce necessitated establishment of direct communication between the political and religious centers. The Kufah–Mecca road, existing prior to the ῾Abbasid period was linked to Baghdad by extending it farther north. Several earlier ῾Abbasid caliphs, especially, Abu'l ῾Abbas as-Saffah, Abu Ja῾far al-Mansur, al-Maholi, and al-Rashid, took an interest in the establishment of the Kufah–Mecca road and made arrangements for the provisions and facilities essential for travelers. The...

Institut Français d'Études Arabes

Institut Français d'Études Arabes   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
629 words

...Jacques Weulersse . Since the 1950s, historical research has been carried out on a wide variety of subjects, all with the same goal: to understand the country and its inhabitants in different periods. The town has remained a recurring topic of research with, among others, the establishment of the Vieux Damas Extramuros (extramural Old Damascus) program. Work on the waqfs, Ottoman fiscal registers, and economic and dynastic texts has enhanced the approach to studying Islamic society (carried out by Sauvaget, Janine Sourdel-Thomine, Dominique Sourdel, Sami Dahan,...

Baptisteries

Baptisteries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,429 words

...octagonal complex, was built immediately adjacent to a Hellenistic hero cult tomb and an earlier Roman bathing establishment. In its later renovation (fifth century) to an octagonal form, one of the wings of the bath was annexed to the church and was used formally as its baptistery. A later basilica in Rome (S. Anastasia) was built over a public bath near the Circus Maximus, but there is no direct archaeological evidence that the bathing establishment was used by the Christiians prior to the construction of the basilica. [See Basilicas .] Altogether, there...

Dedan

Dedan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
928 words

...there, leaving inscriptions in their own language and script. Minaean traders were also to be found in Egypt, and Dedan was probably in contact with them, across the Red Sea. Relations with Egypt seem to have been maintained after the fall of the Persian Empire and the establishment of the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty; Ptolemy II is known to have been active in promoting the Red Sea trade and may well have supported the Lihyanite rulers in the face of the rising power of the Nabateans, based farther north at Petra. Nevertheless, Winnett has advanced evidence...

Keisan, Tell

Keisan, Tell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
774 words

...at Tell Keisan (strata 12–9), some 3 m thick, are especially significant. Stratum 12 may represent a mid-twelfth-century bce rebuilding by a northern group of the Sea Peoples (the Sherden?), with some Philistine Bichrome ware. Stratum 11 represents a more substantial urban establishment, in the late twelfth century bce , that ended either in destruction or abandonment. Stratum 10 reflects the mixed cultural influences of Lower Galilee and the northern coast in the eleventh century bce , with Philistine ware continuing alongside locally made pottery of...

Underwater Archaeology

Underwater Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
997 words

...manufactured goods after they were unloaded from the ships that transported them. Organic material often simply disappears. Furthermore, if artifacts are from a shipwreck that can be dated precisely, as is often the case, they can be equally well dated, contributing to the establishment of precise chronologies. The archaeology of ships, sometimes called nautical archaeology, also reveals design and construction details of various types of watercraft—of merchant vessels, such as those found at Serçe Limanı, Uluburun, and Yassıada in Turkey; warships, a ram at...

Badiat Ash-Sham

Badiat Ash-Sham   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
968 words

...assuming control over the steppic borderlands with the Persians. These client “kings” (Ghassanids) began an ambitious building program throughout the area. During this time, monasteries and hermits' retreats were founded in the steppe. There may have been one such religious establishment at Qaṣr Burqu῾, deep in the steppe on the eastern edge of the harra . The coming of Islam saw further building activity in the badia , which produced the multipurpose desert castles, such as Qaṣr al-Ḥayr (East and West), Jebel Seys, the reconstruction at Qaṣr Burqu῾, and...

Breasted, James Henry

Breasted, James Henry (1865–1935)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
892 words

...) demonstrate the breadth of his interests and interdisciplinary concerns: developing the Assyrian dictionary, copying the Coffin Texts in the Cairo Museum, recording inscriptions at Karnak and Medinet Habu temples in Upper Egypt (these endeavors resulted in the permanent establishment, Chicago House, in Luxor), surveying early human remains in the Nile Valley, and excavating Megiddo in Palestine and Alişar in Anatolia. Bibliography Breasted, Charles. Pioneer to the Past: The Story of James Henry Breasted, Archaeologist . New York, 1943. Readable and...

Qaṣr Al-Ḥayr Ash-Sharqi

Qaṣr Al-Ḥayr Ash-Sharqi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
860 words

...This is more or less the area in which the rains from higher altitudes gather toward the plain and occasionally flood it. It is also located at the approximate place where the Baghdad to Aleppo and Damascus to ar-Raqqa routes cross. Long assumed to be a Roman defensive establishment against nomads, Qaṣr al-Ḥayr has now been shown to have been one of the many early Islamic foundations that cover the entire area from the Euphrates River to the Gulf of ῾Aqaba. Because of its spectacular ruins, which are visible from afar, the site has been recorded by...

Baths

Baths   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,720 words
Illustration(s):
1

...room (apodyterium), a cold room (frigidarium), often with a plunge bath, and a warm room (tepedarium) that led to a hot room (caldarium) . Because of the great variety in building plans, it has proven difficult to devise a typology for bathing complexes. Public bathing establishments can be divided into two main groups: thermae and balneae . Publicly funded thermae were exceptionally large baths that incorporated hygienic, athletic, recreational, educational, and social activities. Public baths could also be located near natural hot springs that also...

Minoans

Minoans   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,048 words

...period, perhaps due to a movement of the population into the emerging palatial centers. Secondary burials in ceramic jars, or pithoi, and ceramic boxes, or larnakes, are found at Ailias near Knossos, and Fourni near Archanes. The foundation of the palaces coincides with the establishment of remote shrines, including peak sanctuaries and sacred caves, and an elaborately built road system in the countryside, with associated sturdy rectangular structures called watchtowers. It may be that the Early Palace period was a time of emerging competitive states centered...

῾Abbasid Caliphate

῾Abbasid Caliphate   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,837 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the bank of the Tigris included two caliphal establishments, Surra Man Ra'a and al-Mutawakkiliyah, six major military cantonments and a moderate-sized town. The two main military cantonments (Ar., qati῾a ), of the Turks at al-Karkh, and the Central Asian Iranians at al-Matira, were placed apart from Surra Man Ra'a, at a distance of 2 farsakhs each (c. 10 km [6 mi.]), although Matira was later engulfed by the development of the city, and there were further cantonments in the city itself. The caliphal establishments and military cantonments consisted of a main...

Sardinia

Sardinia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,334 words

...and successfully pursued a policy of active imperialism which resulted, in around 450 bce , in the establishment of an interior frontier system. By the fifth century, the Phoenician coastal settlements and some more recently established Punic ones had arrived at a mature level of urbanization; they would continue to evolve and play important social and economic roles throughout the Roman period and into the Middle Ages. After the establishment of the Punic internal frontier, Carthaginian influences on the native populations—both within their sphere of...

Development and Archaeology

Development and Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,642 words

...Beirut reported increasing public interest and personal identification with the antiquities being uncovered in salvage excavations in the city's center. Archaeology played a key role in the modern State of Israel's political, cultural, and economic development even before the establishment of the state In 1948 . With the increasing Jewish immigration to Palestine following World War I, Palestinian Jewish scholars became involved in the archaeology of ancient synagogues, finding personal identification and political justification in discovering Israelite and...

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