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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

GUlag

GUlag   Reference library

Akashi Yoji, Norman Davies, and Robert Service

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,918 words
Illustration(s):
1

...GUlag system, calculated that the death rate from malnutrition, disease, and exhaustion during the war years reached 1% per day. It was not unusual for those few prisoners who served their term to be refused release on the grounds that they were a fortiori the most useful workers. Most camp prisoners underwent a worsening of their conditions after Germany's invasion of the USSR on 22 June 1941 ( see BARBAROSSA ). Hitler's occupation of Ukraine and parts of the Volga region created difficulties of food supplies: and the GUlag population was compelled to...

ʿUrf

ʿUrf   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,752 words

...and universal customs. Third, he asserts that if a “universal custom can particularize a text, then it can, a fortiori, override a qiyāṣ ” (Hallaq, p. 47). Ibn ʿĀbidīn's main contribution to the debate is the principle that justifies the dominance of local custom over the authoritative doctrine of the legal school ( madhhab ). He argues that a dominant opinion in the madhhab should be abandoned in favor of a local custom, if it is deemed necessary. Thus, he establishes a third basis upon which to grant custom a legitimate role in legislation, which is...

Teaching International Relations Theory

Teaching International Relations Theory   Reference library

Craig Douglas Albert

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,577 words

...an appearance in the report of the Chilean Institute of International Studies. It is the Chilean argument that the need of a “science” or theory of IR is needed to help drive the field forward. Julio Escudero argues that the field must take a much more specific and scientific approach. In response to the findings of a Professor Alvarez, Escudero explains that if there is any social science whatsoever, there too must be, a fortiori, a “science of international relations,” which shows what international life is and reveals its manifestations. This science...

Vegetarianism, Judaism, and God's Intention

Vegetarianism, Judaism, and God's Intention   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,176 words

..., a noted contemporary Torah scholar and professor at Yeshiva University, states, “The implication is that meat may be consumed when there is desire and appetite for it as food, but it may be eschewed when there is not desire and, a fortiori , when it is found to be repugnant” ( 1987 : 245). According to Bleich, “Jewish tradition does not command carnivorous behavior …” ( 1987 : 245). The Talmud expresses this negative connotation associated with the consumption of meat: The Torah teaches a lesson in moral conduct, that man shall not eat meat unless he has a...

Vegetarianism and Judaism

Vegetarianism and Judaism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,635 words

...when there is desire and appetite for it as food, but may be eschewed when there is no desire and, a fortiori , when it is found to be repugnant. The question is one of perspective. Concern arises only when such conduct is elevated to the level of a moral norm. J. David Bleich Further Reading Bleich, J. David . Contemporary Halachic Problems , v. 3. New York: Ktav Publishing/Yeshiva University Press, 1989. Cohen, Alfred S. “ Vegetarianism from a Jewish Perspective. ” Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society 1:2 (1981), 38–63. Rosner, Fred . ...

Jewish Law and Animal Experimentation

Jewish Law and Animal Experimentation   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,612 words

...designed to satisfy a legitimate human need. Accordingly, all authorities agree that hunting as a sport is forbidden. Although many authorities maintain that it is not forbidden to engage in activities that cause pain to animals in situations in which such practices yield financial benefits, there is significant authority for the position that animal pain may be sanctioned only for medical purposes, including direct therapeutic benefit, medical experimentation of potential therapeutic value and the training of medical personnel. A fortiori , those who eschew...

Arab Spring

Arab Spring   Reference library

Farhad Khosrokhavar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,193 words

...at the polls. The scattered votes of the secular and progressive revolutionaries and their inability to voice their views in a unified manner through new political parties made them vulnerable. They were also inclined to reject politics as dirty, preferring moral attitudes to political ones. Revolutionary women shared these characteristics to an even higher degree, resulting in the marginalization of revolutionary men and, a fortiori, women, in the second period of the Arab revolutions. Another major problem that looms in regard to women is the overwhelming...

Ecology and Religion

Ecology and Religion   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
5,550 words

...activities that are not aimed at reproduction, as well as, a fortiori , against homosexual behavior (this last aspect more in theory than in practice, as clerical recruitment may suffer now that the population pressures that led men and women to enter religious orders have disappeared in Europe). The Roman Church's concern with the regulation of life can be seen in the speech the pope delivered to the Italian parliament in November 2002 , a speech in which, among other things, Woytila spoke about a “birth crisis, demographic decline and ageing of the...

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