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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

Proselytes

Proselytes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...an immersion in the ritual bath before being allowed to touch the communal purities (v.13). Access to liquids required a second year of training (vi.20–21). We may presume, although this is only by inference, that for proselytes the instruction in the commandments of the Torah would have been more protracted and demanding. Given the premise that impurity was inherent in all transgressors of the law (1QS v.14) and a fortiori in gentiles born outside of the law, no proselyte could possibly have entered the Qumran community without undergoing...

ʿUrf

ʿUrf   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,752 words

...and universal customs. Third, he asserts that if a “universal custom can particularize a text, then it can, a fortiori, override a qiyāṣ ” (Hallaq, p. 47). Ibn ʿĀbidīn's main contribution to the debate is the principle that justifies the dominance of local custom over the authoritative doctrine of the legal school ( madhhab ). He argues that a dominant opinion in the madhhab should be abandoned in favor of a local custom, if it is deemed necessary. Thus, he establishes a third basis upon which to grant custom a legitimate role in legislation, which is...

Saints

Saints   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,155 words

...and encourage the imitation of the saints. Invocation was rejected, as was their intercession and, a fortiori , their mediating or redeeming function. This narrow interpretation of Luther's legacy was expressed even more radically by Zwingli and Calvin, who, in consideration of Christ's unique role as mediator, denied that human beings have function. Response at Trent In responding to the arguments of the reformers, the Council of Trent did not prepare a comprehensive hagiology taking into consideration all christological and ecclesiological aspects, but...

stem cell research

stem cell research   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
669 words

...( see Karma ) of a recently deceased individual, and therefore as entitled to the same moral respect as an adult human being. For this reason Buddhism sees the moral issues raised by stem cell research as not in principle different from those raised by IVF treatment where this involves the destruction of spare embryos, and a fortiori abortion . The above holds true regardless of the benevolent intentions of those conducting the research or the eventual good consequences that may flow from it. It follows that it would be immoral to use as a source of stem...

Vegetarianism, Judaism, and God's Intention

Vegetarianism, Judaism, and God's Intention   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,176 words

..., a noted contemporary Torah scholar and professor at Yeshiva University, states, “The implication is that meat may be consumed when there is desire and appetite for it as food, but it may be eschewed when there is not desire and, a fortiori , when it is found to be repugnant” ( 1987 : 245). According to Bleich, “Jewish tradition does not command carnivorous behavior …” ( 1987 : 245). The Talmud expresses this negative connotation associated with the consumption of meat: The Torah teaches a lesson in moral conduct, that man shall not eat meat unless he has a...

Vegetarianism and Judaism

Vegetarianism and Judaism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,635 words

...when there is desire and appetite for it as food, but may be eschewed when there is no desire and, a fortiori , when it is found to be repugnant. The question is one of perspective. Concern arises only when such conduct is elevated to the level of a moral norm. J. David Bleich Further Reading Bleich, J. David . Contemporary Halachic Problems , v. 3. New York: Ktav Publishing/Yeshiva University Press, 1989. Cohen, Alfred S. “ Vegetarianism from a Jewish Perspective. ” Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society 1:2 (1981), 38–63. Rosner, Fred . ...

Lord of Hosts

Lord of Hosts   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
220 words

... who led and defended their armies against their enemies (cf., e.g., Ex. 7: 4 , where the forces of Israel are described as ‘the hosts of the Lord’), but in later times its reference was to God's dominion in majesty and power over the angels and other celestial beings and, a fortiori , His supremacy over the destinies of men. In the LXX the term is variously rendered as κύριος σαβαώθ ‎ (e.g. Is. 1: 9 , which is quoted in the NT at Rom. 9: 29 and there traditionally rendered in English as ‘Lord of Sabaoth’, leaving the word ‘Sabaoth’ untranslated), ...

Hebrews, Epistle to the

Hebrews, Epistle to the   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,069 words

...and hence the Gospel demands unhesitating acceptance ( 3: 1–4 : 13 ). Christ, moreover, is our High Priest, whose priesthood, unlike that of the Levitical (Aaronic) priests, is eternal (4: 14–6: 20). It is a priesthood ‘after the order of Melchizedek ’ (6: 20, cf. Ps. 110: 4 ), who was greater than Abraham ( Gen. 14: 18 ff. ) and was thus a fortiori greater than the Levitical priests. In contrast to the repeated sacrifices of the Old Covenant, the Atonement in Christ is eternal. This New Covenant, which, as foretold by Jer. 31: 31–4 , was to supersede...

Extra ecclesiam nulla salus (est)

Extra ecclesiam nulla salus (est)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
146 words

...and apostolic Church, outside of which there is neither salvation nor remission of sins’, and that ‘it is altogether necessary to salvation for every human creature to be subject to the Roman pontiff’. The bull mentions specifically ‘the Greeks’ (i.e. the Greek Orthodox): a fortiori , those in other religions must be in equally great peril. The apparent severity to non-Christians and non-Catholics is modified by invincible ignorance . This caution issued in the teaching of Vatican II (especially Lumen Gentium ) that those who live by conscience outside...

IBN ḤAYYIM, AHARON

IBN ḤAYYIM, AHARON   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
174 words

...Elishaʿ and Qorban Aharon (Dessau, 1742) on Sifra ’ (on the Book of Leviticus ). He laid down limits for the application of a fortiori arguments derived from the internal relationship between laws. Of his biblical and Talmudic commentaries, only his Lev Aharon on Joshua and Judges has been published (most recently in Jerusalem in 1984). M. Amar , “Toledot Rabbi Aharon IbnḤayyim ve-Yetsirato,” in Aharon IbnḤayyim, Sefer Lev Aharon (Jerusalem, 1983), introduction, pp. 1–8. –SHALOM...

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