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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

STIMMUNG

STIMMUNG (GERMAN)   Reference library

Pascal David

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
2,928 words

...the voice, insofar as it is an ambiguous drive, a site capable of simultaneously representing transversal categories of the musical. To give form to voice would amount to treating it as a raw material. By modifying the contours of a sound, note, or spectrum, one thus modifies the vocal envelope and, as a result, both timbre and perception. This is why Stockhausen speaks of a “composition of timbres” (cf. Cott, Stockhausen: Conversations with the Composer ). Each sound is endowed with its own inner life, a fortiori the timbres of voices conceived as arrangements...

DICTUM

DICTUM (LATIN)   Reference library

Alain de Libera and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
3,909 words

... significabile complexe is “nothing”—that it does not exist. This claim suggests that the “signifiable by complex” cannot be something in the world that would make true a truth of any sort (contingent or necessary). But the claim can only be fully understood by noting that Gregory’s goal is not, contrary to what is often said, to build a nominalist theory of the proposition (or, a fortiori, a “realist” one), but only to explicate the notion of notitia judiciaria (judicial knowledge) of God. The difference between “things” and Sachverhalte may be confirmed...

WERT

WERT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Marc de Launay

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
4,806 words

...of value is related to objective validity ( Geltung ), and when Lask claims that a being is a Gelten , his intent is to stress that our access to the predicate of being is from within a judgment and not from the point of real being. Since the sphere of judgment is part of the unreal sphere of the world, that is to say, the world ruled by validity ( Geltung ), we are complete “prisoners” of the sphere of gelten , which our knowledge obeys. The same holds true a fortiori for the ethical sphere, even if discussions of values ( Werte ) are more common there....

ELEUTHERIA

ELEUTHERIA (GREEK)   Reference library

Claude Romano

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
8,145 words

...( Politics , 3.9.1280a34). This is why he can neither command nor participate in the goals of the city: well-being, or happiness (1280a31). A fortiori the “natural” slave cannot participate in the highest activity of man, in which he fully flourishes as himself and completes his own nature, coinciding with his telos [ τέλος ‎]: contemplation. Aristotle refers to the contemplating man as eleutheros ( Politics , 3.23.1325a19), not only because he is freed from political obligations, but because he fully actualizes his essence as a man, while at the same...

PRAXIS

PRAXIS (GREEK)   Reference library

Étienne Balibar, Barbara Cassin, and Sandra Laugier

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
13,389 words

...word or to a transcription of it (such as “practice” and, a fortiori, the Italian prassi ). Actio , in particular, is not such a translation, but rather is a term that has its own field of application (especially in the physical and oratorical domains; see ACTOR ). The same goes, of course, for “theory.” The second precondition, viewed through the category of “idealism” to which Marx assigns the development of the “active side” of philosophy, involves the opposition, accorded crucial importance by Kantianism and post-Kantianism, between a practical point...

AGENCY

AGENCY   Reference library

Étienne Balibar and Sandra Laugier

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
7,145 words

...decentering. The interest of Austin’s thought on this point is that in any case it excludes—as does Wittgenstein in his writings on philosophy and psychology—the facile solution that consists in defining action, and a fortiori (human) agency by the presence of a metaphysical or subjective will, or of a “backstage artiste.” The problematics of “A Plea for Excuses” consists not only in saying that I am not the master of my actions, but even that I am not their author or subject. Thus agency forms an interesting couple with “performance,” another untranslatable...

PEOPLE

PEOPLE   Reference library

Marc Crépon, Barbara Cassin, and Claudia Moatti

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
13,225 words

...within this people [ die wilde Menge in diesem Volk ]) is called a rabble [ Pôbel ] ( vulgus ). (trans. R. B. Louden , Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View , 213) Kant connects Volk with populus , but gives it a sense that is both narrower and vaguer than that of the Latin term. It designates, as it were, the first degree of union, before any recognition of a common origin, and a fortiori of a common fate. To indicate a meaning similar to that of Cicero’s populus —that is, a political meaning—Kant thus had to introduce other terms, this time...

INTENTION

INTENTION   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
11,922 words

...as a “ correlate belonging to the essence of phenomenologically reduced perception [ das zum Wesen phänomenologisch reduzierten Wahrnehmungen gehörige Korrelat ]” ( Ideen 1, §90, p. 187 [209], trans. Kersten). Insofar as it is limited to the vague notion of representation, the connection Putnam makes between intentionality and nonexistence does not fully capture the Husserlian notion of “sense” (nor, a fortiori, that of a “complete noema” distinguished from a “core of meaning”). Nonetheless, the sense of “intention” or “intentionality” is marked by a series...

SUBJECT

SUBJECT   Reference library

Étienne Balibar, Barbara Cassin, and Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
23,322 words

...syntactic forms and the translations or transpositions play a determinant role. There is nothing to evoke openly a “practical” and, a fortiori, “political” dimension of the subject. This is not, however, certain when we look at two characteristics of the arguments we have just described. The first is that Kant’s subject (the Ich or, to be more accurate, the Ich denke ) is basically caught up in a relationship of ascription. The reflexivity ascribes to it, or it ascribes to itself, a representation that is both truth and error, recognition and...

PROPOSITION

PROPOSITION   Reference library

Marc Baratin, Barbara Cassin, Sandra Laugier, Alain de Libera, and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
16,090 words

...the business of a “statement” can only be to “describe” some state of affairs, or to “state some fact.”…Not all “sentences” are (used in making) statements. ( How to Do Things with Words , 1) “Statement” is difficult to translate into French. In French it tends to be translated as affirmation , which is a problem, just as is assertion , because the expression “state a fact” is more natural than affirmer un fait , and a fortiori is more natural than asserter un fait . We can also note the equivalence between “state a fact” and “make a statement,” which...

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