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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

Topos

Topos   Reference library

O. B. Hardison and E. H. Behler

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... (Gr., literally, “place, region” ; pl. topoi ) . A conventionalized expression or passage in a text that comes to be used as a resource for the composition of subsequent texts. The term is first used in a technical sense in cl. rhet., where it is treated under invention and refers to a standard line of argument based on generally accepted logical probabilities such as “possible or impossible” or “greater or lesser” or “post hoc ergo propter hoc” or “a fortiori,” as when it is argued, e.g., that, since Achilles gave in to wrath, it is not surprising...

STIMMUNG

STIMMUNG (GERMAN)   Reference library

Pascal David

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
2,928 words

...the voice, insofar as it is an ambiguous drive, a site capable of simultaneously representing transversal categories of the musical. To give form to voice would amount to treating it as a raw material. By modifying the contours of a sound, note, or spectrum, one thus modifies the vocal envelope and, as a result, both timbre and perception. This is why Stockhausen speaks of a “composition of timbres” (cf. Cott, Stockhausen: Conversations with the Composer ). Each sound is endowed with its own inner life, a fortiori the timbres of voices conceived as arrangements...

Furor Poeticus

Furor Poeticus   Reference library

R. Falco

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,579 words

... “imitation,” rejected the notion of inspiration as a mysterious “gift” because it diminished the importance of labor and application. In the romantic period, however, furor poeticus was seen as a means of liberating the imagination from conformity (Burwick), although, as interest in clinical madness grew, it tended to be linked to insanity rather than divinity or cl. enthousiasmos . The idea of the “vatic” also became secularized, although it was not associated a fortiori with madness; as a poetic posture, it continued to appeal to poets as late as ...

DICTUM

DICTUM (LATIN)   Reference library

Alain de Libera and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
3,909 words

... significabile complexe is “nothing”—that it does not exist. This claim suggests that the “signifiable by complex” cannot be something in the world that would make true a truth of any sort (contingent or necessary). But the claim can only be fully understood by noting that Gregory’s goal is not, contrary to what is often said, to build a nominalist theory of the proposition (or, a fortiori, a “realist” one), but only to explicate the notion of notitia judiciaria (judicial knowledge) of God. The difference between “things” and Sachverhalte may be confirmed...

WERT

WERT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Marc de Launay

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
4,806 words

...of value is related to objective validity ( Geltung ), and when Lask claims that a being is a Gelten , his intent is to stress that our access to the predicate of being is from within a judgment and not from the point of real being. Since the sphere of judgment is part of the unreal sphere of the world, that is to say, the world ruled by validity ( Geltung ), we are complete “prisoners” of the sphere of gelten , which our knowledge obeys. The same holds true a fortiori for the ethical sphere, even if discussions of values ( Werte ) are more common there....

Limits of Translation, The

Limits of Translation, The   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
4,052 words
Illustration(s):
2

...on any given translation task (or, a fortiori , ‘all translation’, ‘true translation’, ‘translation proper’, ‘translation in itself’) is inevitably arbitrary. It is also that the sorites series itself, the series of numbered steps, is arbitrary as well. The shift from E6 to E7 above, which adds italics to mole to indicate that it is a foreign word and thus probably not the burrowing rodent, is small enough and subtle enough to remind us that there are infinite gradations between alternatives that this one-word-at-a-time method represses. Minute shifts in...

ELEUTHERIA

ELEUTHERIA (GREEK)   Reference library

Claude Romano

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
8,145 words

...( Politics , 3.9.1280a34). This is why he can neither command nor participate in the goals of the city: well-being, or happiness (1280a31). A fortiori the “natural” slave cannot participate in the highest activity of man, in which he fully flourishes as himself and completes his own nature, coinciding with his telos [ τέλος ‎]: contemplation. Aristotle refers to the contemplating man as eleutheros ( Politics , 3.23.1325a19), not only because he is freed from political obligations, but because he fully actualizes his essence as a man, while at the same...

PRAXIS

PRAXIS (GREEK)   Reference library

Étienne Balibar, Barbara Cassin, and Sandra Laugier

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
13,389 words

...word or to a transcription of it (such as “practice” and, a fortiori, the Italian prassi ). Actio , in particular, is not such a translation, but rather is a term that has its own field of application (especially in the physical and oratorical domains; see ACTOR ). The same goes, of course, for “theory.” The second precondition, viewed through the category of “idealism” to which Marx assigns the development of the “active side” of philosophy, involves the opposition, accorded crucial importance by Kantianism and post-Kantianism, between a practical point...

AGENCY

AGENCY   Reference library

Étienne Balibar and Sandra Laugier

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
7,145 words

...decentering. The interest of Austin’s thought on this point is that in any case it excludes—as does Wittgenstein in his writings on philosophy and psychology—the facile solution that consists in defining action, and a fortiori (human) agency by the presence of a metaphysical or subjective will, or of a “backstage artiste.” The problematics of “A Plea for Excuses” consists not only in saying that I am not the master of my actions, but even that I am not their author or subject. Thus agency forms an interesting couple with “performance,” another untranslatable...

PEOPLE

PEOPLE   Reference library

Marc Crépon, Barbara Cassin, and Claudia Moatti

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
13,225 words

...within this people [ die wilde Menge in diesem Volk ]) is called a rabble [ Pôbel ] ( vulgus ). (trans. R. B. Louden , Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View , 213) Kant connects Volk with populus , but gives it a sense that is both narrower and vaguer than that of the Latin term. It designates, as it were, the first degree of union, before any recognition of a common origin, and a fortiori of a common fate. To indicate a meaning similar to that of Cicero’s populus —that is, a political meaning—Kant thus had to introduce other terms, this time...

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