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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

Saints

Saints   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,155 words

...and encourage the imitation of the saints. Invocation was rejected, as was their intercession and, a fortiori , their mediating or redeeming function. This narrow interpretation of Luther's legacy was expressed even more radically by Zwingli and Calvin, who, in consideration of Christ's unique role as mediator, denied that human beings have function. Response at Trent In responding to the arguments of the reformers, the Council of Trent did not prepare a comprehensive hagiology taking into consideration all christological and ecclesiological aspects, but...

Passion

Passion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,621 words

...our external senses (sight, taste, smell, and sound). At a fundamental level, then, the statements “I approve/I disapprove of this” mean “this is good” or “this is bad.” This “emotivist” moral standard ran up against the challenge, late in the eighteenth century, of characters who naturally approved conduct alien or repugnant to most philosophes—for example, the title character of Denis Diderot's Le neveu de Rameau and the Tahitian Orou in his Supplément au Voyage de Bougainville ; or, a fortiori, Dolmance in the marquis de Sade's La philosophie dans le...

Hazard, Paul

Hazard, Paul (1878–1944)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,169 words

...intelligible. In sum, Paul Hazard's idealism caused him to take a byroad, not the main road, of historical interpretation. After all, did “Europe” really exist in his chosen epoch, as many of his critics have asked, and a fortiori was there a “European consciousness”? There certainly existed Europeans, but can we claim, without sinking into total vagueness, that there existed an international intellectual fraternity, a veritable republic of letters, when contact among them was confined to a handful of epistolary exchanges that had no influence on what was to...

Bible

Bible   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,934 words

...continue to “overexegese” the classical doctrinal and apologetic texts, as though eighteenth-century Bible studies had never existed or were patently irrelevant to their religious vision. Mendelssohn was opposed to any tampering with the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible and, a fortiori, to the French-derived criticism of the Bible. Since then liberal Judaism, heir to certain aspects of the Haskalah project of opening up Judaism to the best in European thought and scholarship, has not only made its peace with eighteenth-century Bible studies but, under the...

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