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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

Gregory VII, Pope

Gregory VII, Pope (1029?–1085)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
496 words

...concerns Kings ; the apostolic see has the power to judge spiritual things; a fortiori he can judge secular things. Having agreed to take part in an assembly of the kingdom, the pope left Rome between November and December 1076 . The emperor, fearing an entente between Gregory and the princes, went to meet him. Surprised, Gregory withdrew to Canossa , a castle belonging to Countess Matilda . The king finally arrived at Canossa on 25 Jan , barefoot, in the habit of a Penitent . After three days of penance , he was admitted to the pope's...

seigneurie

seigneurie   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,523 words

...have forged a terminology intended to designate various forms of organisation of agrarian domination ( Villikation , standard large Estate , seigneurie banale , manor, reserve-tenure system, etc.). This typology, not without some arbitrariness, reflects a very real diversity and expresses quite well the absence of any general trend in the formal organisation of domination. It is necessary to insist on the fact that the fundamental social reality was a specific social relationship, not a form of organisation, nor a fortiori a concrete and visible...

Ecclesiology

Ecclesiology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,293 words

... treatises , attentive to the historical fact of the succession to the apostolic see. Within a Church thus enlarged to the dimensions of Christendom , papal authority , from being purely spiritual, gradually became a power of legal or even political authority, which was a major ecclesiological turning-point: the relations between the Churches and that of Rome , a fortiori with the laity , was one of subordination, which theologians expressed with a copious supply of organic or organicist metaphors, or by evoking father-son relations, etc. Gregory...

Freedom

Freedom   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,041 words

...Hippo ( 430 †), free will was presented as the aptitude of the will to determine itself from within, without any extrinsic necessity coming to limit, thwart or, a fortiori , determine the voluntary act. Thus the act of willing could be identified with that of disposing of free will : the will is self-possessed, and this is why the act of will is always free, otherwise it does not exist; a will can always act or not act. From this point of view, the philosophical question of freedom boils down to the question of free will of which Peter Lombard (...

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