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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

GUlag

GUlag   Reference library

Akashi Yoji, Norman Davies, and Robert Service

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,918 words
Illustration(s):
1

...GUlag system, calculated that the death rate from malnutrition, disease, and exhaustion during the war years reached 1% per day. It was not unusual for those few prisoners who served their term to be refused release on the grounds that they were a fortiori the most useful workers. Most camp prisoners underwent a worsening of their conditions after Germany's invasion of the USSR on 22 June 1941 ( see BARBAROSSA ). Hitler's occupation of Ukraine and parts of the Volga region created difficulties of food supplies: and the GUlag population was compelled to...

topos

topos   Reference library

Glenn W. Most and Gian Biagio Conte

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
450 words

...two rhetoricians provide the same catalogue, but some of the more familiar τόποι include arguments ad hominem or a fortiori , from homonymy or etymology , from antecedents or effects. Although in this sense the ancient discussions remain important for contemporary analyses of everyday argumentation, the general decline of rhetoric in modern culture has led topoi, like other rhetorical concepts, to seek refuge in literary studies. The recent critical topos of applying the term also, and especially, to commonly but variably expressed literary contents (clichéd...

topos

topos   Reference library

Glenn W. Most and Gian Biagio Conte

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
430 words

...two rhetoricians provide the same catalogue, but some of the more familiar topoi include arguments ad hominem or a fortiori , from homonymy or etymology, from antecedents or effects. Although in this sense the ancient discussions remain important for contemporary analyses of everyday argumentation, the general decline of rhetoric in modern culture has led topoi , like other rhetorical concepts, to seek refuge in literary studies. The recent critical topos of applying the term also, and especially, to commonly but variably expressed literary contents...

class struggle

class struggle   Reference library

Paul Anthony Cartledge

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
695 words

...of any definition of class for the understanding of Greece and Rome have been equally passionately denied. Economic class is an objective actuality, a relationship subsisting among persons similarly placed in an economic system. But when used as a dynamic term of historical analysis, or a fortiori as a political slogan, it may comport also a psychological ingredient of self-consciousness, so that membership of a certain economic class may crucially determine the members’ conscious behaviour towards each other and towards members of another class or classes....

Proselytes

Proselytes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...an immersion in the ritual bath before being allowed to touch the communal purities (v.13). Access to liquids required a second year of training (vi.20–21). We may presume, although this is only by inference, that for proselytes the instruction in the commandments of the Torah would have been more protracted and demanding. Given the premise that impurity was inherent in all transgressors of the law (1QS v.14) and a fortiori in gentiles born outside of the law, no proselyte could possibly have entered the Qumran community without undergoing...

Saints

Saints   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,155 words

...and encourage the imitation of the saints. Invocation was rejected, as was their intercession and, a fortiori , their mediating or redeeming function. This narrow interpretation of Luther's legacy was expressed even more radically by Zwingli and Calvin, who, in consideration of Christ's unique role as mediator, denied that human beings have function. Response at Trent In responding to the arguments of the reformers, the Council of Trent did not prepare a comprehensive hagiology taking into consideration all christological and ecclesiological aspects, but...

topos

topos   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
102 words

... topoi include arguments ad hominem or ā fortiōrī , from etymology , from antecedents or effects. See communes loci ; progymnasmata...

Gregory VII, Pope

Gregory VII, Pope (1029?–1085)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
496 words

...concerns Kings ; the apostolic see has the power to judge spiritual things; a fortiori he can judge secular things. Having agreed to take part in an assembly of the kingdom, the pope left Rome between November and December 1076 . The emperor, fearing an entente between Gregory and the princes, went to meet him. Surprised, Gregory withdrew to Canossa , a castle belonging to Countess Matilda . The king finally arrived at Canossa on 25 Jan , barefoot, in the habit of a Penitent . After three days of penance , he was admitted to the pope's...

seigneurie

seigneurie   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,523 words

...have forged a terminology intended to designate various forms of organisation of agrarian domination ( Villikation , standard large Estate , seigneurie banale , manor, reserve-tenure system, etc.). This typology, not without some arbitrariness, reflects a very real diversity and expresses quite well the absence of any general trend in the formal organisation of domination. It is necessary to insist on the fact that the fundamental social reality was a specific social relationship, not a form of organisation, nor a fortiori a concrete and visible...

Ecclesiology

Ecclesiology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,293 words

... treatises , attentive to the historical fact of the succession to the apostolic see. Within a Church thus enlarged to the dimensions of Christendom , papal authority , from being purely spiritual, gradually became a power of legal or even political authority, which was a major ecclesiological turning-point: the relations between the Churches and that of Rome , a fortiori with the laity , was one of subordination, which theologians expressed with a copious supply of organic or organicist metaphors, or by evoking father-son relations, etc. Gregory...

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