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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

topos

topos   Reference library

Glenn W. Most and Gian Biagio Conte

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
450 words

...two rhetoricians provide the same catalogue, but some of the more familiar τόποι include arguments ad hominem or a fortiori , from homonymy or etymology , from antecedents or effects. Although in this sense the ancient discussions remain important for contemporary analyses of everyday argumentation, the general decline of rhetoric in modern culture has led topoi, like other rhetorical concepts, to seek refuge in literary studies. The recent critical topos of applying the term also, and especially, to commonly but variably expressed literary contents (clichéd...

topos

topos   Reference library

Glenn W. Most and Gian Biagio Conte

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
430 words

...two rhetoricians provide the same catalogue, but some of the more familiar topoi include arguments ad hominem or a fortiori , from homonymy or etymology, from antecedents or effects. Although in this sense the ancient discussions remain important for contemporary analyses of everyday argumentation, the general decline of rhetoric in modern culture has led topoi , like other rhetorical concepts, to seek refuge in literary studies. The recent critical topos of applying the term also, and especially, to commonly but variably expressed literary contents...

class struggle

class struggle   Reference library

Paul Anthony Cartledge

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
695 words

...of any definition of class for the understanding of Greece and Rome have been equally passionately denied. Economic class is an objective actuality, a relationship subsisting among persons similarly placed in an economic system. But when used as a dynamic term of historical analysis, or a fortiori as a political slogan, it may comport also a psychological ingredient of self-consciousness, so that membership of a certain economic class may crucially determine the members’ conscious behaviour towards each other and towards members of another class or classes....

topos

topos   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
102 words

... topoi include arguments ad hominem or ā fortiōrī , from etymology , from antecedents or effects. See communes loci ; progymnasmata...

Teleology

Teleology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,867 words

...Hence if something's origins help to constitute its explanatory causes, a fortiori so does its purpose. Neither of these Aristotelian tenets is essential to teleology, and few non-Aristotelian teleologists ever endorsed them. In the mainstream of ancient thought, teleology is to be found in the belief, usually a religious one, that the world is the product of divine creation, the actual cause typically being divine intelligence itself—in Aristotle's schema, equivalent to a moving and not a final cause. And although Aristotle denies, probably rightly, that any...

Aristophanes

Aristophanes (c.450–c.388bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,676 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Cleon's father Cleaenetus was based. That Aristophanes had a basic familiarity with Socrates and his ideas is apparent from Clouds , but the effect of the play depends on the fact that the same could be said of most average Athenians at the time. On the other hand the image in Plato's Symposium of the two men as friends is best understood as part of Plato's attempt to control and improve Socrates’ image in the years after his execution in 399 and should not be taken seriously. A fortiori, responsibility for the contents of the long speech attributed...

topos

topos  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A standard form of rhetorical argumentation or a variably expressible literary commonplace. In classical rhetoric, inventio helps the orator to find elements of persuasion: topoi or locī are both the ...
class struggle

class struggle   Reference library

Paul Anthony Cartledge

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
790 words

...of any definition of class for the understanding of Greece and Rome have been equally passionately denied. Economic class is an objective actuality, a relationship subsisting among persons similarly placed in an economic system. But when used as a dynamic term of historical analysis, or a fortiori as a political slogan, it may comport also a psychological ingredient of self-consciousness, so that membership of a certain economic class may crucially determine the members’ conscious behaviour towards each other and towards members of another class or classes....

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