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a fortiori

Subject: Philosophy

(Latin, from the stronger)

Phrase used for ‘all the more’ or ‘even more so’: if all donkeys bray, then a fortiori all young donkeys bray.

Croce, Benedetto

Croce, Benedetto (1866)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,411 words

...into three broad categories. The most radical would be a proof of the incoherence of any idealist philosophy that would, a fortiori, undermine any aesthetics, such as that found in Croce and Gentile, that rested on an idealist foundation. A second kind of criticism would be to argue that even granted the coherence of idealism, Croce is not coherent and consistent in developing an aesthetic that is built on that foundation. That, indeed, is the criticism offered by Gentile in his Philosophy of Art , a remarkable book on idealism and its implication for our...

Realism

Realism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,176 words

...A natural way of explaining this realism—call it a theory of realism as resemblance—is to say that a painting is realistic in virtue of looking like what it is a painting of. A natural objection to this explanation is that even the most realistic painting looks very little like what it depicts: paintings typically have a flat surface, exhibit brushstrokes, and possess edges, whereas subjects of paintings typically do not. Nelson Goodman ( 1976 ) argues that the concept of resemblance does not explain any relation among natural objects in the world, and, a...

Croce, Benedetto

Croce, Benedetto (1866–1952)   Reference library

Colin A. Lyas

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,444 words

...into three broad categories. The most radical would be a proof of the incoherence of any idealist philosophy that would, a fortiori , undermine any aesthetics, such as that found in Croce and Gentile, that rested on an idealist foundation. A second kind of criticism would be to argue that even granted the coherence of idealism, Croce is not coherent and consistent in developing an aesthetic that is built on that foundation. That, indeed, is the criticism offered by Gentile in his Philosophy of Art , a remarkable book on idealism and its implication for our...

Realism

Realism   Reference library

Alan Goldman and Jonathan Gilmore

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,606 words

...A natural way of explaining this realism—call it a theory of realism as resemblance—is to say that a painting is realistic in virtue of looking like what it is a painting of. A natural objection to this explanation is that even the most realistic painting looks very little like what it depicts: paintings typically have a flat surface, exhibit brushstrokes, and possess edges, whereas subjects of paintings typically do not. Nelson Goodman ( 1976 ) argues that the concept of resemblance does not explain any relation among natural objects in the world, and, a...

Meta-Aesthetics

Meta-Aesthetics   Reference library

Louise Hanson

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,367 words

...as to produce a certain visual sensation in a certain kind of observer in appropriate circumstances, to be beautiful is to be such as to please (in a way to be further specified) a certain kind of observer. Thus, while response-dependence accounts share with realism a commitment to R1 and R3, they deny R2, that the having of those values is an entirely mind-independent matter. For a different take (stemming from a different conception of realism) on the way in which response-dependence compromises realism, see Pettit, 1991 . Relativism marks a greater...

Interpretation

Interpretation   Reference library

Michael Krausz, Annette Barnes, and Joseph Margolis

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,610 words

...account for the formation of selves and for their mastery of language and accompanying culture— a fortiori , for the very agency of art, that is, the production and interpretation of art, the powers by which we transform material things and make them, like speech, the second-natured bearers of thought and feeling. But that does not mean that there are any “rules” for constructing or interpreting artworks correctly: nothing more, perhaps, than our sense of sharing a form of life. Rigor is characteristically not discovered but heuristically (and laggardly) proposed...

exposure determination

exposure determination   Reference library

Roger W. Hicks and Angela Nicholson

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
970 words

...as a mid‐tone grey in the slide. All other reflected light readings require interpretation and modification, whether by the photographer or, via empirically derived exposure algorithms, by the software in a multi‐sector exposure meter. For exposing negative films, on the other hand, all that normally matters is adequate shadow detail. If this is present, then a fortiori the highlights will not be underexposed. The logical approach is therefore to meter the darkest areas in which shadow detail is required, preferably with a spot meter, using a shadow...

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