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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Belarus

Belarus   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,177 words
Illustration(s):
2

...elements of a command economy. Almost 40 per cent of industrial output still comes from state-owned enterprises and most of the rest from enterprises that are effectively under state control. Over 75 per cent of the banking industry is state-owned, and in all sectors, private business still plays a small part, and will continue to do so unless major economic reform is undertaken. Agriculture, too, is still mostly a state activity. Small farms have proliferated since independence but most output still comes from state and collective farms, the majority of...

South and Central Asia

South and Central Asia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...out in stark contrast with the rest of the world. For though the world cycles of Hinduism are subdivided in four yugas or ages, not unlike the Greco-Roman ages of gold, silver, brass, and iron, they follow each other in the apparently endless stream of time. The wheel of birth and death, reincarnation, encompasses the individual, the species, the social structure, the planet, the gods, the universe: it is the timescale of Nature herself. Endless, irreversible, unquenchable are the processes of alteration and change. The cycle of emanation, fruition,...

Ethnic Foods

Ethnic Foods   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Americans and later immigrant groups, ethnic restaurants are often a reserve of ethnic dishes that are no longer made at home, usually because they require too much labor. Ethnic restaurants provide more established immigrant groups a place in which to celebrate life-cycle events with ethnic feasts. In addition, seasonal and festival dishes modified to suit American meal patterns in public restaurants may come to signify group identity (more than their original seasonal meaning) at a later date. Thus a dish such as spaghetti and meatballs, featuring...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,916 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Hashemite authorities in Jordan. The PNA, under the leadership of Fatah leader Yasir Arafat, won out and the Muslim identity of the political institutions of the PNA was established. The Basic Law of the PNA underwrites the Muslim identity of this proto-state institution by providing for sharīʿah courts to address the realm of personal status issues. Article 4 of the Basic Law also declares that Islam is the official religion of Palestine and due respect should be accorded to other religions. The laws of Islam are also the basis for Palestinian law under the...

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
20,911 words
Illustration(s):
1

...birth of the prophet Muḥammad, the mevlûd in Turkey, while men predominate in activities that take place in mosques. Rather than seeing the mevlûd as primarily a women's activity, it is best to see it as complementary to mosque activities and an integral element of the way Islam is understood locally and practiced by both women and men acting as households. Ritual and Community. Popular elaboration of ritual also distinguishes communities within the Muslim world. The ritual cycle of mourning for the betrayal of the Prophet's grandson Ḥusayn ( d. 680 )...

Mosque

Mosque   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
18,226 words
Illustration(s):
5

...niche), the minbar (pulpit), and the minaret, have come to be associated with a mosque, the only essential element consists of a suitable empty space allowing for the regular performance of private and common prayer. Other possible activities related to education, legal procedures, counseling, conflict resolution, life-cycle celebrations, public communication, political mobilization, entertainment, lodging, and the provision of welfare assistance, follow from this cultic raison d ’être . This combination of ceremonial and practical usages centered in or...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
13,377 words
Illustration(s):
7

...spiraled minaret on Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn's mosque linked that structure with the extraordinary spiraled towers the ʿAbbāsid caliphs built in Samarra in the ninth century. The most ubiquitous basic form, a tapering, rounded shaft, is found throughout Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan. Ruling dynasties modified the proportions of this basic form, varying its number of balconies and their placement, and its materiality and surface ornamentation. The minarets of Ṣafavid Isfahan are similar yet recognizably different from those of...

Islam

Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
46,709 words
Illustration(s):
19

...heads of religion in those states that were not under direct rule, but this concession was so heavily regulated as to render it nugatory. Islam was in fact reduced from an essential of the state, its basic foundation, to mere individual belief. As though this were not enough, the religion itself became subject to government fiat at a very basic level. The respective colonial bureaucracies so regulated many of the fundamental institutions of Islam that even today it is impossible, or very difficult, to see Islam except in the terms imposed then. For...

European American music

European American music   Reference library

Philip V. Bohlman, Stephen Erdely, Leon Janikian, Christina Jaremko, Ain Haas, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Mark Levy, Philip V. Bohlman, Robert C. Metil, Jesse A. Johnston, Julien Olivier, Stephen D. Winick, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Stephen d. Winick, Philip V. Bohlman, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Stephen Erdely, Lynn M. Hooker, Mick Moloney, Stephen D. Winick, Marcello Sorce Keller, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Katherine Brucher, Carol Silverman, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Chris Goertzen, Mark Forry, Janet Sturman, Philip V. Bohlman, Marcello Sorce Keller, Robert B. Klymasz, and Denis Hlynka

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
33,627 words
Illustration(s):
6

...for Bulgarian young adults have developed in several cities, independent of church- or community-sponsored activities. Rather than dancing to live music at a community event, in these groups dancing is done to recorded music, as an aerobic activity/class in a dance studio. The dances are usually taught by graduates from one of the Bulgarian state-sponsored choreography schools. This phenomenon of folk dancing to recorded music, as an aerobic activity, has also arisen in Bulgaria recently. 7. Czech and Slovak American music. The history of Czech American and...

Jazz

Jazz   Reference library

Mark Tucker, Travis A. Jackson, and Travis A. Jackson

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
30,073 words
Illustration(s):
10

...the melodic options for improvised lines. The titles of Coleman's albums sought to reflect the spirit of innovation driving his activity: Tomorrow is the Question! The New Music of Ornette Coleman (Cont., 1959 ), The Shape of Jazz to Come (Atl., 1959 ), and especially Free Jazz (Atl., 1960 ), in which a double quartet collectively improvises, at times producing dense textures, jarring dissonance, and agitated rhythmic activity. While some hailed Free Jazz as a liberating manifesto, opening a new world of possibilities for adventurous musicians working...

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