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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

demography of the war

demography of the war   Reference library

J. M. Winter

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,549 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the boundary between civilian and military targets in warfare was obliterated. In Asia, as throughout occupied Europe, disease, famine, and indiscriminate bombardment of civilian populations produced a parallel human disaster, the dimensions of which can never be fully known. The bare outlines of this catastrophe are presented in Table 1. Over half of the 50 million men, women , and children who perished in the Second World War were civilians. Demography, Table 1: Approximate war-related deaths of major combatant nations in the Second World War Country...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...for the supervision of the imperial prisons and the walls of the palace. The support of the tagmata for iconoclasm is evidenced in their disruption of the Ecumenical Council of 786 in Nicaea when troops of the Scholai, the Exkoubitoi, and the other regiments threatened with bare swords the patriarch and bishops gathered in the Church of the Holy Apostles and broke up the council. Two other heavy cavalry regiments were added later, the Vigla and the Hikanatoi. The former was apparently created by Empress Irene (r. 780–802 ) for personal security as a...

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...looked on the Iberian cavalcade itself as the secret to understanding a Spanish character that was formed as a consequence of almost constant military, linguistic, and cultural conflict. Though Hispanicists have increasingly distanced themselves from this dichotomy, its bare outlines are still visible in scholarship on Spanish military affairs that tends to view martial developments in the Peninsula as the result of national or European causes. Spanish Scholarship. Studies of Spanish military matters of the central Middle Ages have been severely...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...historical writing continued apace, although it came to be dominated by clergy who were more likely to be affiliated with an ecclesiastical house or church. Local histories complement national, even international, approaches. Many of the sources are actually annals or chronicles, bare-bones litanies of significant events that impinged on the consciousness of the writer tasked with keeping the record. That structure works to the modern historian’s advantage because the descriptions therein are more often free of the thematic doctoring that accompanies more...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,480 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the threats and hazards of an everchanging sea, as an escape from the alienated and mechanized conditions of modern life. Belloc’s essays seek to recapture the conditions of sail as an escape from the alienation of the passenger ship or cruise liner, as an escape from the places prepackaged by travel literature for consumption by tourists, and as an escape from an implicitly dystopic vision of shore life. His “Dedication to Maurice Baring,” with which The Cruise of the “Nona” begins, sets the tone. In this familiar address to a friend, Belloc recalls the...

Unions

Unions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
19,172 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 1972 , Japanese shipowners began selling their Japanese-flag vessels abroad on a large scale, and then they chartered these same ships with seamen from developing countries on board (so-called charter-back ships). They also let out their Japanese-flag ships to foreigners on bare-boat charters and then rechartered the vessels from the foreigners, who made arrangements to man them with labor drawn from developing countries. Thus did Japanese shipowners push for the de-Japanization of crews from the earlier part of the 1970s. Zennikkai laid emphasis on...

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
35,913 words
Illustration(s):
9

...very limited budgets, using a mix of new and secondhand purchases with an increasing emphasis on local construction and support. [ See also Navies, Great Powers, subentry on British Isles, 1500 to the Present ; Piracy ; and Wars, Maritime, subentry on World Wars .] Baer, George W. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990 . Stanford Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994. One of the best single volume histories of the U.S. Navy. It provides an excellent summary of the navy’s role in the Asia-Pacific. Blechman, Barry M. , and ...

Wars, Maritime

Wars, Maritime   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
42,659 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Sergei ; Intelligence, subentry on Naval Intelligence ; Mountbatten, Louis ; Narcotics Trade ; Naval Diplomacy ; Navies, Great Powers, subentry An Overview ; Rickover, Hyman ; Strategy ; Tactics ; and Technology and Weapons, subentry 1850 to the Present .] Baer, George W . One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994. Brown, David . The Royal Navy and the Falklands War . London: Leo Cooper; Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987. Cable, James . Gunboat Diplomacy...

Navies, Great Powers

Navies, Great Powers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
52,890 words
Illustration(s):
5

... subentry Naval Aviation ; Burke, Arleigh ; Halsey, William ; King, Ernest ; Leyte Gulf, Battle of ; Mahan, Alfred Thayer ; Maury, Matthew Fontaine ; Midway, Battle of ; Mobile Bay, Battle of ; Nimitz, Chester ; Rickover, Hyman ; San Diego ; and Wars, Maritime .] Baer, George . One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The United States Navy, 1890–1990 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994. Beach, Edward L. The United States Navy: 200 Years . New York: Henry Holt, 1986. A valuable personal historical perspective by a professional naval...

Navigational Instruments

Navigational Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
30,532 words
Illustration(s):
5

...name for compass. The card was an advance that led to different designs of compasses used at sea and on land. The practice of placing the card at the bottom of the box, fixed below the needle, was followed by the compass makers of Nuremberg in the sixteenth century. The so-called “bare-needle” compasses, which use a straight arrow-pointed needle, were used mainly for surveying purposes. When exactly the compass card and the magnetic needle were combined is not known; legend has it that the combination of the card with the needle, and the compass generally,...

Western Front

Western Front   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,215 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of Mont St Quentin (north of Péronne) by 2nd Australian Division. Mont St Quentin was the key to the German defence of the line of the Somme. If it was lost the whole German position would be turned and a further retreat would become inevitable. The 2nd Division approached the bare slopes of the Mont on 2 September . Accompanied by a formidable artillery bombardment and skilfully using rifle grenades and trench-mortars to outflank German outpost positions, the troops stormed up the slopes and ejected the German Guards Division from the defences on the...

USSR

USSR   Reference library

Norman Davies, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Martin McCauley, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Martin McCauley, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Alexander Boyd, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, Heinz-Dietrich Löwe, and M. R. D. Foot

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
28,175 words
Illustration(s):
8

...History of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union 1941-45 , 6 Vols (Moscow, 1960 ff); Kravchenko: Ekonomika , pp. 125, 228, 351; Malafeev, A., Istoriia tsenoobrazovaniia v SSSR, 1917-1963 gg . (Moscow, 1964 ), p. 407. Production for civilian needs was obviously cut to a bare minimum, with these figures probably understating the full decline in the standard of living. Investment in housing decreased drastically during wartime and the consequences of the destruction and evacuation had to be suffered by the population for long after the war. Goods...

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