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actual and virtual

A modal distinction proposed by French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a replacement for the problematic real-possible distinction more commonly used in philosophy. The possible is a bad ...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...without reducing the growth of new print publications, and the natural division between modern books and ancient texts has not disappeared. The digitization of new books, of course, is merely a new form of publication, and the digitization of current publications is fraught with legal issues of copyright. On the other hand, the digitization of ancient books and MSS not only provides access to their texts but is closely related to issues of preservation. The future of Chinese digital books and virtual libraries is as unpredictable as the technology that...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,862 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...between graceful 14 th -century Italian book illustration and the panel paintings and frescos of the early Renaissance; and between the homely, engaging, and sometimes comic miniatures of southern Netherlandish books of around 1500 and the paintings of the Flemish primitives, from the Van Eycks to the Bruegels. That is as one would expect. Often, in fact, they were the same actual craftsmen, working in different media. Most MSS are transcribed from other MSS, and absorb something of their exemplars and of their creator’s own time. The lines of textual...

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality   Reference library

Horea Avram

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,317 words
Illustration(s):
1

...projects, the work is concerned with immersivity, depth of field, and the “perfect” illusion: the virtual objects are rendered tridimensionally, image’s flatness is replaced by profoundness, and immersion substitutes arm’s-length visual experience. The viewer seems to be literally inside the convergent space, among the objects and images (real and virtual), and not in a detached, “cinematic” mode of perception. Another type of AR use is projective solutions (through spatial displays): the actual site of the work is used as a projection surface, therefore...

allegory

allegory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,899 words
Illustration(s):
1

...network existing in another domain of experience. This is not the same thing as the passage from virtual to actual described by Greimas (i.e., from abstract relations to a narrative articulation of those relations). The allegorical meaning of a text is mimetic and referential, replicating in the domain of ideas and feelings the structure of events. The movement is hence the opposite of the virtual-actual transition. This notion of levels or planes of signifying and signification raises in turn the problem of the transfer from one to the other(s). On the basis...

Conditional and Convective Instability

Conditional and Convective Instability   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,604 words
Illustration(s):
2

...temperature change with displacement will then be at the dry adiabatic lapse rate. (Strictly, it is lapse rates of virtual temperature that apply, since the water vapor mixing ratio is among the factors determining the air density. [ See Temperature .] The virtual temperature of moist air is the temperature that air without water vapor would have if both had the same density and pressure. The difference between temperature and virtual temperature is usually quite small.) If the surrounding air has a lapse rate less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate, the...

Northeastern Mexico

Northeastern Mexico   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,874 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mexico , a region that can be defined as one east of a virtual line linking the presentday towns of Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, and Saltillo and north of the rivers Pánuco, Moctezuma, and San Juan, that is to say, beyond the sixteenth-century limits of Mesoamerica. At the time that Cortés and his men reached the Veracruz shores in 1517 , these vast expanses of land were in fact occupied by nomadic groups of hunters and gatherers, as well as by some marginal semipermanent agriculturists, who were often called by a collective Nahuatl name, the ...

Water Vapor

Water Vapor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,391 words
Illustration(s):
4

...has a virtual temperature slightly greater than its actual temperature. [ See Temperature .] Water exists in the atmosphere in all three of its common phases—vapor, liquid, and solid (there are actually several different phases of ice, but those details are beyond this discussion). It is constantly changing between them. In the atmosphere, there are four phase changes involving water vapor: evaporation or vaporization is the change from liquid to vapor; condensation is the change from vapor to liquid; sublimation is the change from solid to vapor; and...

Midway, Battle of

Midway, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,891 words
Illustration(s):
1

...While the raid caused little actual damage, it dealt a blow to Japanese national pride and convinced Yamamoto that what remained of the U.S. fleet must be destroyed. Battle of Midway. SBD “Dauntless” dive bombers from USS Hornet (CV-8) approaching the burning Japanese heavy cruiser Mikuma to make the third set of attacks on her, during the early afternoon of June 6, 1942. Mikuma had been hit earlier by strikes from Hornet and USS Enterprise (CV-6), leaving her dead in the water and fatally damaged. National Archives and Records Administration To...

Leyte Gulf, Battle of

Leyte Gulf, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,853 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Two U.S. Coast Guard manned tank landing ships (USS LST-206 and USS LST-22) in the surf on Leyte, while soldiers build piers of sandbags to speed unloading operations on October 1, 1944. National Archives and Records Administration Planning began for a landing on Leyte, a key island on the eastern side of the Philippines . The amphibious assets of Admiral William F. Halsey ’s Third Fleet were reassigned to Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid ’s Seventh Fleet. The Seventh Fleet was to effect the actual landings at Leyte Gulf, while Halsey’s orders were to have...

Dialectology

Dialectology   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,554 words
Illustration(s):
4

...sources, and thus can produce a large corpus at relatively low expense. The disadvantage is that it relies on amateurs who may not be actual speakers of the dialect, and who may have no training in phonetic transcription or other phases of language study. The advantage of the interview method is that the interviewer can make sure that the consultants are true speakers of the dialect, that they understand what is being asked, and that their answers are relevant and authentic. Its principal disadvantage is that it is both expensive and time-consuming, and thus...

Perspective

Perspective   Reference library

Christopher S. Wood and Michael Kubovy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,651 words
Illustration(s):
9

...will appear distorted and therefore correct. It has been argued that the discovery of perspective by Brunelleschi and Alberti, together with the writings of Piero, Leonardo, and Dürer, represented a singular moment when the fine arts made an actual contribution to the history of science. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many more artists and amateurs wrote treatises on perspective. Some of the most important were Jean Cousin’s “Livre de perspective” ( 1560 ), Daniele Barbaro’s “La pratica della perspettiva” ( 1569 ), and Giacomo da Vignola’s “Le...

Perspective

Perspective   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,956 words
Illustration(s):
10

...appear distorted and therefore correct. It has been argued that the discovery of perspective by Brunelleschi and Alberti, together with the writings of Piero, Leonardo, and Dürer, represented a singular moment when the fine arts made an actual contribution to the history of science. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many more artists and amateurs wrote treatises on perspective. Some of the most important were Jean Cousin 's Livre de perspective ( 1560 ), Daniele Barbaro 's La pratica della perspettiva ( 1569 ), and Giacomo da Vignola 's ...

Intellectuals

Intellectuals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,332 words
Illustration(s):
1

...such as Martin Robison Delany , Malcolm X, and others have promoted nationalist sentiments and ideals. But no category of intellectual engagement is fixed; ideas and ideologies must reflect specific circumstances, and this complexity has been reflected in black intellectual development. Meanwhile, the debates and actual struggles involved in black Americans’ attempts at achieving nationalism, integrationism, or some balance of the two have served to influence other social justice movements in the United States and around the world. Black women have worked...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,764 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on surfaces, materials are brought and applied in order to make it seem as if forms had been placed in a virtual space. From the standpoint afforded by this framework, Western optical naturalism is a construction of virtual space as primarily metric, physical, and egocentric, that is, a construction of virtual forms in virtual light in relation to a single viewer. For the most part, Western art history and criticism have been preoccupied with the construction of virtual spaces, their problems and implications, and much less concerned with their correlative...

Portraiture

Portraiture   Reference library

Richard Brilliant and Ernst van Alphen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,834 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in Greek art, and “Homer” himself may never have existed. The classical “Homer” can be differentiated from Dickens’s Fagin, who existed only in fictive time, but they do share many features of inventive characterization. More closely, perhaps, the fictive image of “Homer” resembles those actual personages whose participatory appearance in historical novels imparts an air of veracity, or authenticity, especially in the figures of Napoleon and the Russian generals in Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace , Walter Scott’s medieval English kings and nobles, and Gore Vidal’s...

Photography, Ship

Photography, Ship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,309 words
Illustration(s):
1

...American and English Yachts with Edward Burgess in 1887 , and he published The Yachtsman’s Souvenir in 1889 . These two successful publications, which included photographs of some of the greatest yachts of the time, were followed by Henry G. Peabody ’s Representative American Yachts in 1893 . Like Levick , Morris Rosenfeld was beginning his successful career at the turn of the twentieth century, and he accepted assignments from Levick early on. During the first two decades of the twentieth century, Levick and Rosenfeld had a virtual monopoly...

Hemans, Felicia

Hemans, Felicia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
3,268 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Poetry” has nothing to do with “the fierce and sullen passions of men … scenes of actual business or contention—and the mixed motives, and strong and faulty characters, by which affairs of moment are usually conducted on the great theatre of the world”—all this due to the “disabling delicacy” that pervades female “conceptions and feelings.” Female poets, Jeffrey blandly stated, are no better at “long moral or political investigations, where many complex and indeterminate elements are to be taken into account, and a variety of opposite probabilities to be...

Geoaesthetics

Geoaesthetics   Reference library

William L. Fox

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,301 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to Geoaesthetics: The Virtual and the Plane of Immanence vs. Mirror Travel and the Spiral Jetty.” Pli: Warwick Journal of Philosophy 16 (May 2005): 27–55. Robin, Libby . “Dead Museum Animals: Natural Order or Chaos.” ReCollections 4, no. 2 (October 2009). http://recollections.nma.gov.au/issues/vol_4_no_2/papers/dead_museum_animals . Sachs, Aaron . The Humboldt Current: Nineteenth-Century Exploration and the Roots of American Environmentalism . New York: Viking, 2005. Shapiro, Gary . “Nietzsche on Geophilosophy and Geoaesthetics.” In A...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,993 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of surface and spatial morphology, of flatness and volume as inherent to sculptural practice, Stokes and Badt establish the fundamental structure of sculpture as an interrelation between the organic (i.e., plastic) form and geometry as the ordering and regulative principle. Their position implies the equation of a work of art with an organism and the view that “life” is the telos of art, a position that also motivates Langer's “virtual kinetic volume that is created by—and with—the semblance of living form” (Langer, 1953 , p. 89). Stokes's and Badt's...

Political Participation

Political Participation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,044 words
Illustration(s):
2

...African Americans continued to vote until the end of the century. George Henry White , for one, of Wilmington, North Carolina, was elected to Congress from the “black second,” as his district was called, in 1896 and 1898 . However, the Wilmington race riot of 1898 undid other black electoral victories in the district and signaled a virtual end to black political participation in the South until the civil rights revolution of the mid-twentieth century. See also Abolitionism ; Black Abolitionists ; Black Politics ; Bruce, Blanche Kelso ; Civil...

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