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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed fall, germination, and seedling establishment). This term is similar to affore station , which refers to forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. A third term, reforestation , has the same meaning as forestation . Forestation is a practice that is...

Biomes

Biomes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,179 words
Illustration(s):
1

...long periods of marginal climate. However, it is during the stage of tree regeneration (seedling establishment) that they are most vulnerable to climate change. Seedlings are highly sensitive to temperature and may be unable to grow under altered climatic conditions. This means that if climate zones do shift more rapidly than trees migrate, established adults of appropriate species and genotypes will be separated from the place where seedling establishment will be required in the future. It is probable that future climate change will not cause catastrophic...

Regional Assessment

Regional Assessment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,931 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as an analogy (MINK: Rosenberg, 1993). Regional assessments can be quantitative (involving regional assessment models), qualitative, or, most frequently, a combination. Other relevant issues include establishment of dialogue among scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers as the assessment proceeds; the range of decision choices considered; establishment of boundary conditions with assessments at wider spatial scales; reconciliation of data of different spatial and temporal resolutions; selection of an integrated or modular format; specification of...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...), buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ), camels ( Camelus dromadarius ), horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ), and goats ( Capra hircus ) have become feral over large parts of Australia. During the nineteenth-century acclimatization, societies actively promoted the establishment of a variety of Northern Hemisphere species to give a European character to Australia's environment and to provide game for recreational hunting. Some of these species have become serious pests, most notably the fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ). Some...

Colorado River, Transformation of The

Colorado River, Transformation of The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,603 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as an energy source is derived externally, for example, from the river bank vegetation) to autotrophic (pertaining to systems in which all or most of the organic matter is derived internally, for example, through photosynthesis) because clear water below the dam allows the establishment of an extensive stand of photosynthetic green algae ( Cladophora ). These macrophytes are a substrate for periphyton (diatoms and Gammarus ), which are a major food source for trout and other fishes. Increasing sediment loads downstream reduce the amount of photosynthetic...

Tundra

Tundra   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,840 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Change in the Tundra Tundra ecosystems are becoming increasingly threatened by human activity. Greater accessibility and awareness of vast natural resources have resulted in increased settlement in the Arctic. The development of transport routes and oil pipelines and the establishment of extractive industries have sometimes produced large impacts on the tundra, fragmenting wilderness areas. Slow-growing, long-lived plants with low replacement rates, which often already experience the multiple stresses of severe climates and limited resources, are...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of placer deposits, such as the tin that occurs beneath mangroves on the western coasts of Thailand and Malaysia, and generally they have failed to regenerate on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been made for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and prawn ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. [See Fish Farming .] Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by pesticides, as...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,495 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of placer deposits, such as the tin that occurs beneath mangroves on the western coasts of Thailand and Malaysia, and generally they have failed to regenerate on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been carried out for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and shrimp ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by defoliating herbicides such as Agent...

Climate Models and Uncertainty

Climate Models and Uncertainty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,573 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to allow the incorporation of processes that operate at a local or regional scale. These processes which operate at less than grid-scale—convective thundercloud formation, for example—are integrated into the models through parameterization, a technique that involves the establishment of a statistical relationship between grid-scale variables in the GCM and the smaller-scale processes. Calculations at the grid scale can then provide estimates of local or regional conditions. Cloudiness, net surface radiation, various elements of the hydrologic cycle, and...

Environmental Movements

Environmental Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,364 words
Illustration(s):
1

...vast majority of environmental groups adopted legal means to protect the environment and gained widespread public support for their efforts. Indeed, by the early 1980s certain segments of the environmental movement were actively courted by business interests and the political establishment. Environmentalism was no longer a “fringe” movement; it had become mainstream. Many of the larger environmental groups, with memberships in the millions and annual budgets over U.S.$100 million, were now run by professional administrators who controlled entire departments of...

Younger Dryas

Younger Dryas   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,511 words
Illustration(s):
1

...YD (Osborne and Gerloff, 1997). The discovery of the Younger Dryas in Scandinavia was followed in the 1930s by a large number of pollen investigations into lake and bog sediments throughout Europe (Watts, 1980). Tundra pollen was diagnostic of the YD, since it followed the establishment of forest pollen that indicated the late-glacial warming. Dramatic changes in vegetation characterized both coastal and inland areas all the way from northern Norway to the Mediterranean (Walker, 1994). In the British Isles, birch forest was replaced by shrubs and herbs, and...

Fishing

Fishing   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,882 words
Illustration(s):
7

... Straddling and Migratory Stocks Agreement .] In defense, Canada established a two-hundred-nautical-mile exclusive fishing zone (in accord with new international law) in 1977 . This embraced most of the Grand Banks, but left three outlying shelf areas unprotected. After establishment of the exclusive zone, federal and provincial subsidies to fishermen encouraged the Canadian industry to expand: between 1974 and 1981 the number of licensed fishermen grew from 36,500 to 53,000, while processing capacity was more than doubled. Expansion of the fishing...

Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse Effect   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,531 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in the rising convective plumes, and much of the condensed water falls to the surface as precipitation. When the water condenses, the latent heat of vaporization is released to the air, making it warmer than it would be otherwise. The result of this moist convection is the establishment of a vertical rate of decrease of temperature that is nearly neutrally stable to the moist convection. This vertical rate of decrease of temperature is referred to as the moist adiabatic lapse rate , and it varies with both altitude and temperature. Figure 2 shows a pair of...

Little Ice Age In Europe

Little Ice Age In Europe   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,206 words
Illustration(s):
6

...in the late seventeenth century, associated with the expansion of polar water, is attributable to the inability of cod kidneys to function in water below 2°C. The observation of northward extensions of the range of European birds during twentieth-century warming, such as the establishment of starlings ( Sternus vulgaris ) in Iceland after 1941 , implies that more substantial changes in the distribution of birds and insects must have occurred during the most marked phases of the Little Ice Age. The consequences for European populations ranged from ice advance...

Mediterranean Environments

Mediterranean Environments   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,573 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and pollen evidence illustrates the absolute importance of people in determining the characteristic vegetation patterns of the region from about 6,000 bp . Deciduous oak woodland is shown to become degraded and replaced by evergreen oak, juniper, and pine as a result of the establishment of cultivation and livestock. In eastern Spain, it is pine forest that is replaced by oak scrub following clearance. The Mediterranean basin, once 40 percent forested, has had its tree cover quite literally decimated by humans, such that forests now comprise just 4 percent of...

Environmental Movements

Environmental Movements   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,195 words
Illustration(s):
1

...majority of environmental groups adopted legal means to protect the environment. They gained widespread public support for their efforts. Indeed, by the early 1980s certain segments of the environmental movement were actively courted by business interests and the political establishment. Environmentalism was no longer a “fringe” movement. It had become mainstream. Many of the larger environmental groups, with memberships in the millions and annual budgets ranging over U.S.$100 million, were now run by professional administrators who controlled entire...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,082 words
Illustration(s):
1

...factor contributing to the decline of the ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. The remains of terracing from these times illustrate a very early understanding of erosion control. The foundation of soil conservation as a worldwide movement dates from the establishment in 1935 of the United States Soil Conservation Service, with H. H. Bennett as its first director. [See the biography of Bennett .] The basis of soil conservation is wise land use and good land management. The Soil Conservation Service pioneered a system of land...

Little Ice Age in Europe

Little Ice Age in Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,989 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Sea area in the late seventeenth century, associated with the expansion of polar water, is attributable to the inability of the cod's kidneys to function in water below 2°C. The northward extensions of the range of European birds during twentieth-century warming, such as the establishment of European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) in Iceland after 1941 , implies that more substantial changes in the distribution of birds and insects must have occurred during the most marked phases of the Little Ice Age. Human Effects The consequences for European populations...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,952 words
Illustration(s):
1

...factor contributing to the decline of the ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. The remains of terracing from these times illustrate a very early understanding of erosion control. The foundation of soil conservation as a worldwide movement dates from the establishment in 1935 of the United States Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service), with H. H. Bennett as its first director. The basis of soil conservation is wise land use and good land management. The Soil Conservation Service pioneered a system of...

Ethanol

Ethanol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,032 words
Illustration(s):
2

...is released when ethanol is combusted is carbon that was captured in the growing system when the biomass was produced. The carbon that is released when gasoline is combusted, on the other hand, is fossil carbon that was captured through photosynthesis eons ago, prior to the establishment of current climate patterns, and is in a sense “new” to the climate system. Whereas it is theoretically possible to balance extraction and reintroduction of carbon into the climate in a closed loop through ethanol combustion, such balance is not possible with fossil fuel...

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