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Establishment

Subject: Religion

In ecclesiastical usage, the recognition by the State of a particular Church as that of the State. In OT Judaism and in much of the ancient world, religious observance was part of the ...

Forestation

Forestation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...forest area from which the trees have recently been harvested or removed by natural disturbance (e.g., fire, insects, wind, disease, or landslide). The term implies forest replacement by some means other than natural regeneration (natural seed fall, germination, and seedling establishment). This term is similar to affore station , which refers to forestation on lands that have not previously supported forest plant communities, or not for a long time. A third term, reforestation , has the same meaning as forestation . Forestation is a practice that is...

Territoriality

Territoriality   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,186 words
Illustration(s):
2

...individual. In real life, daily changes in territory size, which mirror changing reserve levels, will be limited because territorial boundaries are often constrained by those of neighbors. Territory size may therefore reflect the individual's state at the time of territory establishment but bear little relationship to its current state. The fact that individuals vary in ways that impinge on the costs and benefits of territorial defense raises the interesting possibility that not all individuals are maximizing the same currency by being territorial. Indeed, in...

Biomes

Biomes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,179 words
Illustration(s):
1

...long periods of marginal climate. However, it is during the stage of tree regeneration (seedling establishment) that they are most vulnerable to climate change. Seedlings are highly sensitive to temperature and may be unable to grow under altered climatic conditions. This means that if climate zones do shift more rapidly than trees migrate, established adults of appropriate species and genotypes will be separated from the place where seedling establishment will be required in the future. It is probable that future climate change will not cause catastrophic...

Antarctic Ice Sheet

Antarctic Ice Sheet   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,411 words
Illustration(s):
3

...with field research, have established an adequate understanding of the principal physical characteristics and the important climate role of the ice sheet. Origins. Ice appears to have been present on the high-latitude Antarctic continent since 50 million years ago. The establishment of circum-Antarctic ocean circulation led to progressive refrigeration of the continent and build-up of high-altitude ice fields (for example within the interior Gamburtsev Mountains). Large, continental-scale ice sheets developed about 34 million years ago. Glacial geological...

Meiotic Distortion

Meiotic Distortion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,891 words
Illustration(s):
1

...initially limited in impact to the population dynamics of the specific drive and target loci, and other loci accidentally found in close linkage. Linked alleles (especially if they enhance drive) may enjoy indirect drive through genetic hitchhiking, leading eventually to the establishment of drive haplotypes. For strong drive, this haplotype may spread to fixation, eliminating polymorphism in a meiotic sweep. The haplotype may be further extended by incorporating chromosome rearrangements that reduce recombination and promote additional linkage disequilibrium...

Regional Assessment

Regional Assessment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,931 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as an analogy (MINK: Rosenberg, 1993). Regional assessments can be quantitative (involving regional assessment models), qualitative, or, most frequently, a combination. Other relevant issues include establishment of dialogue among scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers as the assessment proceeds; the range of decision choices considered; establishment of boundary conditions with assessments at wider spatial scales; reconciliation of data of different spatial and temporal resolutions; selection of an integrated or modular format; specification of...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,844 words
Illustration(s):
1

...), buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ), camels ( Camelus dromadarius ), horses ( Equus caballus ), donkeys ( Equus asinus ), and goats ( Capra hircus ) have become feral over large parts of Australia. During the nineteenth-century acclimatization, societies actively promoted the establishment of a variety of Northern Hemisphere species to give a European character to Australia's environment and to provide game for recreational hunting. Some of these species have become serious pests, most notably the fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ). Some...

Colorado River, Transformation of The

Colorado River, Transformation of The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,603 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as an energy source is derived externally, for example, from the river bank vegetation) to autotrophic (pertaining to systems in which all or most of the organic matter is derived internally, for example, through photosynthesis) because clear water below the dam allows the establishment of an extensive stand of photosynthetic green algae ( Cladophora ). These macrophytes are a substrate for periphyton (diatoms and Gammarus ), which are a major food source for trout and other fishes. Increasing sediment loads downstream reduce the amount of photosynthetic...

Greenland Ice Sheet

Greenland Ice Sheet   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,024 words
Illustration(s):
6

...R. B. The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future . Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. Benson, C. S. “ Stratigraphic Studies in the Snow and Firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet .” U.S. Army Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment, Research Report 70, 1962. Funder, S. “Quaternary Geology of the Ice-Free Areas and Adjacent Shelves of Greenland.” In Quaternary Geology of Canada and Greenland , edited by R. J. Fulton , pp. 743–792. Ottawa: Geological Society of Canada, 1989. Johnsen, S. J. , W....

Tundra

Tundra   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,840 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Change in the Tundra Tundra ecosystems are becoming increasingly threatened by human activity. Greater accessibility and awareness of vast natural resources have resulted in increased settlement in the Arctic. The development of transport routes and oil pipelines and the establishment of extractive industries have sometimes produced large impacts on the tundra, fragmenting wilderness areas. Slow-growing, long-lived plants with low replacement rates, which often already experience the multiple stresses of severe climates and limited resources, are...

Conservation Laws

Conservation Laws   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,093 words
Illustration(s):
1

...equal amount of radiant energy in the forms of reflected solar energy—so-called shortwave radiation—and longer-wavelength infrared radiation. The system will come to a state of dynamic equilibrium in response to this input and output of energy. Dynamic equilibrium denotes the establishment of a basic state typified by a certain thermal structure (both horizontal and vertical) and perturbations about this basic state that account for the atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Within this system, certain quantities are conserved. [ See Longwave Radiation ; and ...

Quasi-biennial Oscillation

Quasi-biennial Oscillation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,319 words
Illustration(s):
2

...only permanent winds coming from the east were assumed to exist in the equatorial stratosphere, a theory confirmed by the observations of winds from the east, moving aerosol clouds to the west after the 1883 eruption of Krakatau, a volcanic island of Indonesia. After the establishment of a global, regularly reporting radiosonde observation network, Reed et al. ( 1960 ) and Veryard and Ebdon ( 1961 ) independently identified the alternation of west and east winds in the equatorial stratosphere, with an average period of 28 months. Today, the QBO is...

Severe Weather

Severe Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,466 words
Illustration(s):
1

...weather are an important part of any weather service, and much research has been focused on furthering our understanding of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. Early efforts included the 1949 Thunderstorm Project and the 1950 Tornado Project. These programs led to the establishment of the Severe Local Storms Unit (SELS) in the United States in 1953 , which moved to Kansas City, Missouri, in 1954 , and was then renamed the National Severe Storms Forecast Center ( NSSFC ) in 1966 . In 1995 , the NSSFC became the Storm Prediction Center ( SPC ), and...

Warfare and Weather

Warfare and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,453 words
Illustration(s):
1

...at its height, and Spain exercised influence and control over much of the known world. Philip II of Spain ( 1527–1598 ) came to view England and its Queen, Elizabeth I ( 1533–1603 ), as Protestant heretics. One of Elizabeth's first acts as monarch had been to support the establishment of an English Protestant church. In a political context, Spain ruled the Low Countries, the regions which now constitute Belgium and the Netherlands. The populations of these areas strove to throw off the foreign Spanish occupation. England, concerned that a rival great power...

Gene Families

Gene Families   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,228 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In vertebrates, the most convincing evidence that genome duplications have played a role in evolution is provided by the structure and organization of the Hox gene clusters. The Hox genes encode a class of DNA-binding transcription factors that play a crucial role in the establishment of cellular and tissue identity during embryogenesis. The closest relative of vertebrates, Amphioxus (Cephalochordata), displays a single Hox gene cluster, whereas lampreys, representing jawless vertebrates, are endowed with two or three independent sets of Hox gene...

Sex Chromosomes

Sex Chromosomes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,460 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and thus of sex chromosomes, in different angiosperm families ( Darwin , 1877 ; Westergaard, 1958 ). Reduction in crossing over between X and Y chromosomes. As suggested by H. J. Muller in 1918 , the first step in the evolution of sex chromosomes must have involved the establishment of restricted recombination between a pair of proto-X and proto-Y chromosomes. [ See Muller, Hermann Joseph .] This is a response to the need to prevent recombination among genes with primary sex-determining roles. The evolution of separate sexes from an initially...

Species Diversity

Species Diversity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,283 words
Illustration(s):
1

...tactics (such as toxic matrices) has forced many seed predators to specialize in seeds of particular species. Heavy seed predation coupled with species-specific seed predators holds down densities of various tree species and creates a mosaic of conditions for seedling establishment. Factors other than seed predation also limit the abundance of tropical tree species and prevent single-species dominance. Still another biotic variety of disturbance is the epiphyte load hypothesis, invoked to explain tropical tree species diversity. Light is a master...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of placer deposits, such as the tin that occurs beneath mangroves on the western coasts of Thailand and Malaysia, and generally they have failed to regenerate on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been made for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and prawn ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. [See Fish Farming .] Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by pesticides, as...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,495 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of placer deposits, such as the tin that occurs beneath mangroves on the western coasts of Thailand and Malaysia, and generally they have failed to regenerate on the worked-over terrain. The most extensive clearance of mangroves in recent decades has been carried out for the establishment of aquaculture (fish and shrimp ponds) and salt pans in such countries as Ecuador and Brazil, and especially in southeastern Asia. Mangroves have also been damaged or destroyed by pollution, especially oil spills near port areas, and by defoliating herbicides such as Agent...

Climate Models and Uncertainty

Climate Models and Uncertainty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,573 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to allow the incorporation of processes that operate at a local or regional scale. These processes which operate at less than grid-scale—convective thundercloud formation, for example—are integrated into the models through parameterization, a technique that involves the establishment of a statistical relationship between grid-scale variables in the GCM and the smaller-scale processes. Calculations at the grid scale can then provide estimates of local or regional conditions. Cloudiness, net surface radiation, various elements of the hydrologic cycle, and...

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